A fermented infusion of malted grain, to which hops is usually added.
The term is also applied to beverages made of infusions of roots and herbs.
When the vine would not grow and be fruitful, Osiris taught the inhabitants to make drink of barley, little inferior in strength and pleasant flavor to wine itself.
— Diodorus Siculus (60 B. C.).
Hecataeus, in his Description of the world, refers to the Egyptian beer.
Sophocles and Aeschylus also.
The latter, —
And after this he drank his beer, and much And loudly bragged
Athenaeus says that Thracians and Paeonians drank of barley-wine, or a similar drink made from millet or other grain.
Polybius describes the palace of one of the Spanish kings as being [furnished with] huge silver and gold goblets full of the wine made of barley. — Athenaeus.
Aristotle says that wine of grapes is stimulating, but that of barley has a tendency to stupefy. — Ibid.
As these barbs all incline in one direction, the fibers can readily work into a mass of fibers, partially felted, butend foremost.
This is called sizing, and is produced in napping hats.
Felt probably preceded woven fabrics.
In Central Asia, the home of the argali, from whence the domestic sheep has probably sprung, the clothing and tents of the people are yet, and have been since the first recorded times, felted fabrics.
The latticed huts referred to by Herodotus and Aeschylus are covered with felt, of which also the flapping screen which answers for a door is made.
See wagon. Marco Polo (thirteenth century) describes them fully.
Klaproth describes them as of goat's hair (see haircloth), and having a shaggy villus on the outside.
The Chinese traveler, Chi-fa-hian, who visited India in the fourth century, describes the people of Chen-chen, who lived about the Lake of Lob, as wearing dresses of Chinese cut, but made of felt.
Felt covered the funeral pile of He
In the prophecy of Jeremiah (588 B. C.), chap.
verse 1, we find:—
O ye children of Benjamin, gather yourselves to flee out of the midst of Jerusalem, and blow the trumpet in Tekoah, and set up a sign of fire in Beth-haccerem; for evil appeareth out of the north, and great destruction.
Homer, some 400 years before, had compared the aureola which surrounded the head of Achilles to the signals made in besieged cities, by fires at night and clouds of smoke by day; and Aeschylus, more than a century after Jeremiah, using perhaps a poetical license, makes Agamemnon announce the fall of Troy to Clytemnestra by beacon-fires, whose rays, darting from the Asiatic shore to Lemnos, were repeated from Mount Athos, whence the grateful news was in like manner telegraphed to Argos.
Fire-signals were prepared by Mardonius to notify his master, the great king Xerxes, then at Sardis, of the second taking of Athens.
At a later period, Polybius describes a semaphoric system
ns of Gershom, and four wagons and eight oxen he gave unto the sons of Merari. — Numbers VII. 3, 7.
Camels are not shown in the Egyptian paintings, and could not have been in come on use in that country in Pharaonic times.
Their use had long been known in Persia, and some were probably introduced by the immigrating Israelites.
Cambyses failed to reach the oasis and temple of Ammon, probably from want of camels.
Herodotus refers to the carts and wagons of the Scythians (see cart). Aeschylus, in his Prometheus bound, speaks of the
Wandering Scyths who dwell In latticed huts high poised on easy wheels.
One of their wagons, measured by Rubruquis, had a distance of 20 feet between the wheels: the axle was like the mast of a sloop, and it was hauled by 22 oxen, 11 abreast (Fig. 7002).
Marco Polo, who traveled through this country 1275-1295, states that their houses are circular, and are made of wands covered with felts.
These are carried along with them whithersoever t