Westminster ( Big Ben, 1858）30,324
London (Houses of Parliament)30,000
Paris (Notre Dame, 1680）28,6728.67 1/2
Montreal (1847）28,5608.68 1/4
New York (City Hall）23,0008.6 1/2 to 7
New York (Fire-alarm, 33d Street）21,612
York ( Great Peter, 1845）10 3/4 tons.8.3
Rome (St. Peters, 1680）18,600
Oxford ( Great Tom, 1680）18,0007.16 1/8
Exeter (1675）5 1/2 tons.6.35
Lincoln ( Great Tom, 1834）5 1/2 tons.6.86
London (St. Paul's, 1709）11,4706.7
Fig. 636 represents a bell having a rotatable clapper.
The various parts are —
B, clapper or tongue.
F, canon or ear.
Cattle and sheep bells are cast, or are made of wrought-metal by being doubled over at the angles or cutting and brazing.
of brick or stones.
3. (Ordnance.) A short gun with a large bore, used for throwing bombs.
Said to have been used at the siege of Naples in 1435, and to have been first made in England in 1543.
A colossal mortar constructed by Mallet was tried at Woolwich, October 19, 1857, with a charge of 70 pounds of powder, and it threw a shell weighing 2,550 pounds 1 1/2 miles horizontally, and about 3/4 a mile in hight.
Shells of 1,000 pounds are said to have been thrown into the citadel of Antwerp, 1832, when it was taken by the French in the war of the Revolution, 1830-32.
Mortars are constructed with a chamber of smaller diameter than the bore, for containing the charge of powder, which is poured in loose.
Thin, tapering slips of wood, termed splints, are used for fixing the shell accurately in the bore, no sabot being employed.
Mortars in the United States service are divided into three classes, sea-coast, siege, and coehorn.
To these may be nominally added the stone morta
bonate of lime.
Sulphate of baryta
Yellow ochreAn earth composed of silica and alumina, colored by oxide of iron.
Naples yellowAntimoniate of lead.
Chrome yellowAn impure chromate of lead.
GambogeA gum principally derived from Siam.
UltramarineFrom lapis lazuli; also prepared artificially.
Cobalt bluePhosphate of alumina and oxide of co-
balt mixed with arsenite of cobalt.
Smalt-Saxon blueDouble silicate of cobalt and potassa, mixed with earthy and metallic oxides.
Antwerp bluePrussian blue with various proportions of alumina and carbonates of magnesia and zinc.
Prussian blueFerro-cyanide of iron.
IndigoFrom plants of the genera indigofera, isatis, and nerium, principally the former.
LampblackCarbon from the soot of burning rosin or other vegetable or animal matters.
Ivory blackCalcined wine lees.
Red ochreFrom calcination of yellow ochre.
Red lead or miniumA mixture of protoxide and binoxide of lead.
MadderFrom the madder pl
at at Gobelin's was enlarged under Louis XIV.
The French ascribe the invention to the Saracens, and formerly called the workmen who were employed in its manufacture sarazins.
The manufacture was introduced into England by Sheldon, in the reign of Henry VIII.
It was encouraged by his successors.
Hampton Court Palace yet displays their tapestry on its walls.
These hangings were a very ornamental accession to the bare walls of the buildings of some centuries since.
Arras, Brussels, Antwerp, and Valenciennes excelled in the manufacture, but the best known at the present day is the factory at the Gobelin's, near Paris.
It is named after Giles Gobelin, a French dyer, of the reign of Francis I, and was established by Henry IV.
about 1606, and much enlarged by the renowned Colbert in 1666.
It is said to have been conducted by Flemish artists.
Hand tapestry is embroidered by the needle, woolen or silken threads being worked into the meshes of a fabric.
Basse lisse is woven