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as required, and in this way the smoke was nearly all consumed. In the same year Hawkins patented a shovel for supplying coal to the fire at bottom. The shovel had a cover, and the contained coal was pushed forward into the fire by a piston. The revolving grate was introduced by Steel and Brunton, English patents, about 1819. Grates. Grate-bars of hollow tubes, connecting waterboxes at front and rear, were introduced by Chapman in 1824. See smoke-consuming furnace. In 1825, Atkins attached a fuel-chamber to the back grates, the bottom of the chamber being made to slope at a considerable angle. Jeakes, in 1854, formed a movable grate, which was lowered into the fuel-box, gradually consuming the fuel and admitting a supply of air from above to support the combustion. Rowe, in 1854, introduced coal into the bottom of the grate by a pipe leading from a side reservoir of fuel. In 1854, Bachhoffner consumed the smoke of one fire by passing it through an upper fir
metals, iron, steel, brass, white-metal, gun-metal, and lead. There are in an instrument of seven and a half octaves 214 strings, making a total length of 787 feet of steel wire, and 500 feet of white (covering) wire. Such a piano will weigh from 900 to 1,000 pounds, and will last with constant use (not abuse) fifteen or twenty years. The total manufacture of pianos in New York alone averages 15,000 per annum. — Exchange. Fig 3689 illustrates an instrument patented July 11, 1871, by Messrs. Atkins and Drewer, in which steel hooks a b, having one or more prongs, are employed in place of strings, the general arrangements of the key-board, action, and sounding-board resembling those of the upright piano. The hooks are attached to a metallic frame c, composed of two bars connected by pillars which alternate with the hooksupports, and cause the sound-board to vibrate by striking against it. When the hooks have more than one prong, each prong must be tuned to a different octave. A kin
h's binder, with a reciprocating rake beneath the platform. 1851. Watson's automatic binder. 1851. Miller's backwardly reciprocating rake. 1851. Allen geared the operative parts from both wheels, to distribute the driving-power. 1852. Atkins had a rake rigged on a vertical post. It had a jointed arm which swept across the curved platform and gathered the gavel against a shield; the post, rake and shield then turned 90° on an axis, the rake was raised, and the gavel dropped in rear osoda, and water. No. 81,903, Hinsdale, 8, 9, 1868. The bar-iron is scaled; washed; dipped in a bath of clay 100, lampblack 1, prussiate of potash .5; heated and rolled; the sheet-iron is dipped in same composition and rerolled. No. 88,002, Atkins, 23, 3, 1869. Roll into sheets, scale with acid, neutralize with lime-water, oil; lay up the iron in packs with intervening charcoal and marble dust; raise to a red-heat, roll singly; reheat, and roll in pairs, and so on; rolling till cold to de
By Shuttle. (a.) Shuttles reciprocate. No.Name.Date. 4,750HoweSept. 10, 1846. 5,942BradshawNov. 28, 1848. (Reissue.)188Blodgett et al.Jan. 14, 1851. 8,282Atkins et al.Aug. 5, 1851. 8,294SingerAug. 12, 1851. 9,556PalmerJan. 25, 1853. 9,641ThompsonMar. 29, 1853. 10,757ParkerApr. 11, 1854. 10,763HarrisonApr. 11, 1854. 1861. 32,385SmithMay. 21, 1861. 34,081WelchJan. 7, 1862. 34,789StebbinsMar. 25, 1862. 34,906SingerApr. 8, 1862. 36,084HallAug. 5, 1862. (Reissue.)1,388Atkins et al.Jan. 20, 1863. 37,913HoweMar. 17, 1863. 37,985SmithMar. 24, 1863. 38,740HalliganJune 2, 1863. 39,256LangdonJuly 14, 1863. 41,916GuinnessMar. 15, 1864. ,927PlanerAug. 23, 1864. 44,063AtwaterSept. 6, 1864. 44,382MeloneSept. 20, 1864. 45,278StackpoleNov. 29, 1864. 45,972CadwellJan. 24, 1865. (Reissue.)1,930Atkins et al.Apr. 11, 1865. 47,673WinsleyMay 9, 1865. 49,262HalliganAug. 8, 1865. 53,353SmithMar. 20, 1866. 53,743McCurdyApr. 3, 1866. 54,145HalliganApr. 24, 1866.