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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Antietam, battle of. (search)
Caldwell, and Brooks (who had crossed the Antietam at ten o'clock), gained a good position. The Confederates, reinforced by fresh troops, fought desperately. Finally, Richardson was mortally wounded, and Gen. W. S. Hancock succeeded him in command, when a charge was made that drove the Confederates in great confusion. Night soon closed the action on the National right and centre. General Meagher had been wounded and carried from the field, when the command of his troops devolved on Colonel Burke. During the fierce strifes of the day Porter's corps, with artillery and Pleasonton's cavalry, had remained on the east side of the stream, as a reserve, until late in the afternoon, when McClellan sent over some brigades. On the morning of the 17th the left, under Burnside, engaged in a desperate struggle for the possession of a bridge just below Sharpsburg. That commander had been ordered to cross it and attack the Confederates. It was a difficult task, and Burnside, exposed to a
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Boston, (search)
ill providing for the shutting — up of the port of Boston and removing the seat of government to Salem. The measure was popular. Even Barre and Conway gave it their approval, and the Bostonians removed their portraits from Faneuil Hall. Violent language was used in Parliament against the people of Boston. They ought to have their town knocked about their ears and destroyed. said a member, and concluded his tirade of abuse by quoting the factious cry of the Romans, Delenda est Carthago. Burke denounced the bill as unjust, as it would punish the innocent for the sins of the guilty. The bill was passed by an almost unanimous vote, and became a law March 31, 1774. The King believed that the torture which the closing of the port would inflict upon the inhabitants of that town would make them speedily cry for mercy and procure unconditional View of the lines on Boston Neck. obedience. Not so. When the act was received at Boston, its committee of correspondence invited eight of t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Burke, Edmund, 1730-1797 (search)
Burke, Edmund, 1730-1797 Statesman; born in Dublin, June 1, 1730; was one of fifteen children of Richard Burke, an attorney, and was descended from the Norman De Burghs, who early settled in Ireland; graduated at Trinity College, Dublin (1748); studied law, and in 1756 published his famous essay on The sublime and beautiful. That the colonies and plantations of Great Britain in North America, consisting of fourteen separate governments. and contaning 2,000,000 and upward of free Edmund Burke. inhabitants, have not had the liberty and privilege of electing and sending any knights and burgesses, or others, to represent them in the high court of Parlis to make the same more commodious to those who sue, or are sued, in the said courts; and to provide for the more decent maintenance of the judges of the same. Burke's speech on conciliation. I hope, sir, that, notwithstanding the austerity of the chair, your good-nature will incline you to some degree of indulgence towards
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cruger, Henry, Jr. 1739-1780 (search)
Cruger, Henry, Jr. 1739-1780 Merchant; born in New York City, in 1739. His father became a merchant in Bristol, England, where he died in 1780. Henry was associated with him in trade, and succeeded him as mayor of Bristol in 1781. He had been elected to Parliament as the colleague of Edmund Burke in 1774, and was re-elected in 1784, and on all occasions advocated conciliatory measures towards his countrymen. After the war he became a merchant in New York, and, while yet a member of the British Parliament, was elected to the Senate of the State of New York. He died in New York, April 24, 1827.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Declaration of Independence in the light of modern criticism, the. (search)
ions of English political life. Furthermore, he was not by them expected to appear among them at the outset in the fully developed shape of a Philip or an Alva in the Netherlands. They were able to recognize him, they were prepared to resist him, in the earliest and most incipient stage of his being—at the moment, in fact, when he should make his first attempt to gain all power over his people, by assuming the single power to take their property without their consent. Hence it was, as Edmund Burke pointed out in the House of Commons only a few weeks before the American Revolution entered upon its military phase, that: The great contests for freedom . . . were from the earliest times chiefly upon the question of taxing. Most of the contests in the ancient commonwealths turned primarily on the right of election of magistrates, or on the balance among the several orders of the state. The question of money was not with them so immediate. But in England it was otherwise. On th
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Fanning, David 1756-1825 (search)
for the purpose of revenge for injuries inflicted upon him. He gathered a small band of desperadoes like himself, and laid waste whole settlements and committed fearful atrocities. For these services he received the commission of lieutenant from the British commander at Wilmington. So encouraged, he captured many leading Whigs, and hanged those against whom he held personal resentment. At one time he captured a whole court in session, and carried off judges, lawyers, clients, officers, and some of the citizens. Three weeks later he captured Colonel Alston and thirty men in his own house, and soon afterwards, dashing into Hillsboro, he captured Governor Burke and his suite, and some of the principal inhabitants. The name of Fanning became a terror to the country, and he was outlawed. At the close of the war he fled to New Brunswick, where he became a member of the legislature. About 1800 he was sentenced to be hanged for rape, but escaped, and died in Digby, Nova Scotia, in 1825.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Franklin, Benjamin 1706-1790 (search)
Franklin. Late in the autumn of 1776 Dr. Franklin was sent as a diplomatic agent to France in the ship Reprisal. The passage occupied thirty days, during which that vessel had been chased by British cruisers and had taken two British brigantines as prizes. He landed at Nantes on Dec. 7. Europe was surprised, for no notice had been given of his coming. His fame was world-wide. The courts were filled with conjectures. The story was spread in England that he was a fugitive for safety. Burke said, I never will believe that he is going to conclude a long life, which has brightened every hour it has continued, with so foul and dishonorable a flight. On the Continent it was rightly concluded that he was on an important mission. To the French people he spoke frankly, saying that twenty successful campaigns could not subdue the Americans; that their decision for independence was irrevocable; and that they would be forever independent States. On the morning of Dec. 28, Franklin, wi
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Livingston, Philip 1716- (search)
Livingston, Philip 1716- Signer of the Declaration of Independence; born in Albany, N. Y., Jan. 15, 1716; graduated at Yale College in 1737; became a prominent merchant in the city of New York; was an alderman there from 1754 to 1758; and a member of the Provincial Assembly in 1759, in which he was one of the committee of correspondence with the colonial agent in England, Edmund Burke. Livingston opposed the taxation schemes of Parliament, and was unseated by a Tory majority in 1769, when the controversy between Great Britain and her colonies ran high. He was a member of the first Congress (1774), and held a seat in that body until his death, when their session was held at York, the British having possession of Philadelphia. Mr. Livingston was associated with Lee and Jay in the preparation of the two state papers put forth by the first Congress, and was very active on the most important committees in Congress. He founded the professorship of divinity at Yale College in 1746;
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Montgomery, Richard 1736- (search)
er, Nov. 3, took Montreal on the 13th, and pushed on towards Quebec, and stood before its walls with some troops under Arnold, Dec. 4. On the 9th the Continental Congress made him a major-general. He invested Quebec and continued the siege until Dec. 31, when he attempted to take the city by storm. In that effort he was slain by grapeshot from a masked battery, Dec. 31, 1775. His death was regarded as a great public calamity, and on the floor of the British Parliament he was eulogized by Burke, Chatham, and Barre. Even Lord North spoke of him as brave, humane, and generous; but added, still he was only a brave, humane, and generous rebel; curse on his virtues, they've undone his Montgomery's monument. country. To this remark Fox retorted: The term rebel is no certain mark of disgrace. All the great assertors of liberty, the saviors of their country, the benefactors of mankind in all ages, have been called rebels. We owe the constitution which enables us to sit in this House
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Newspapers. (search)
a new and important calling. What was at the beginning of this century the occupation of gossips in taverns and at street corners, had by the middle of the century risen to the rank of a new industry, requiring large capital and a huge plant. We read a great deal about the wonderful growth of the woollen and cotton manufacture since the application of steam to the powerloom and the spinning-jenny; but it is safe to say that these things, could they have foreseen them, would not have amazed Burke and Johnson nearly as much as the conversion of news, as they understood it, into the raw material of such factories as the great newspaper offices of our day. That coffee-house babble could ever be made to yield huge dividends and build up great fortunes is something they would have refused to believe. Of course, this development of newsgathering side by side with the criticism and comment took place with different degrees of rapidity in different countries. The news-gathering grew in t
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