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depreciating paper money of the several colonies, continental bills of credit to the amount of two millions of dollars were authorized, and the twelve confederated colonies were pledged for their redemption. A code for the government of the continental army was adopted. Two more companies of riflemen were asked of Pennsylvania, that the eight from that colony might form a battalion. The Green Mountain Boys, if they would but serve, were allowed the choice of their own officers; and as Carleton was making preparations to invade the colonies, and was instigating the Indian nations to take up the hatchet against them, Schuyler, who was directed to repair to Ticonderoga and Crown Point, received authority to take possession of St. John's, Montreal, and any other parts of Canada. To the Indians agents were sent with presents and speeches, to prevent their taking any part in the commotions. Alliances with them were forbidden, except where some emissary of the ministry should have con
extorted some mitigation of its wrongs. Howe was of an Irish family; to the Irish, therefore, they expressed their amazement at finding his name in the catalogue of their enemies; and they fletched their complaint by adding: America loved his brother. While these addresses were in progress, the British government was exerting every nerve to provide the means of reducing America; and as the aid of Indian tribes was believed to be absolutely necessary, Guy Johnson, acting independently of Carleton, was lavishing promises without bounds on the Six Nations and the savages of Northwest Canada. An Iroquois chief, who attended the conference at Montreal, consented to take home a very large black war belt, emblazoned with the device of the hatchet, but would engage himself no further; while the other savages, for whom a pipe of wine was broached, feasted on an ox that was named Bostonian, drank of his blood, and sang the war song, with loud promises of prowess when they should be called t
ond the recovery of Boston, he revolved in his mind how the continent might be closed up against Britain. He rejected a plan for an expedition into Nova Scotia; but learning from careful and various inquiries that the Canadian peasantry were well disposed to the Americans, that the domiciliated Indian tribes desired neutrality, he resolved to direct the invasion of Canada from Ticonderoga; and by way of the Kennebec and the Chaudiere, to send a party to surprise Quebec, or at least to draw Carleton in person to its relief, and thus lay open the road to Montreal. Solicitations to distribute continental troops along Sept. the New England shore, for the protection of places at which the British marauding parties threatened to make a descent, were invariably rejected. The governor of Connecticut, who, for the defence of that province, desired to keep back a portion of the newly raised levies, resented a refusal, as an unmerited neglect of a colony that was foremost in its exertions;
of opinion that Gage, at an Aug. early day, ought to have occupied the heights of Dorchester and of Charlestown; and he was recalled, though without official censure. For the time, the command in America was divided; and assigned in Canada to Carleton, in the old colonies to Howe. Ten thousand pounds and an additional supply of three thousand arms were forwarded to Quebec, and notwithstanding the caution of Barrington, word was sent to Carleton, that he might depend upon a re- Chap. XLVII.Carleton, that he might depend upon a re- Chap. XLVII.} 1775. Aug. enforcement of regular troops, that it was hoped the next spring to have in North America an army of twenty thousand men, exclusive of the Canadians and Indians. The first contribution was made by the king as elector of Hanover; nor did he drive a hard bargain with the British treasury: his predecessor, through Newcastle, took so much for the loan of Hanoverian troops, that no account of the payment could be found; George the Third asked only the reimbursement of all expenses. His
red on the opening of the Baltic in spring, to embark by way of England for Canada, where they were to be under the supreme command of the British general. The journey from London to Moscow required about twenty three days; yet they were all so overweeningly confident, that they hoped to get the definitive promise by the twenty third of October, in season to announce it at the opening of parliament; and early in September Lord Dartmouth and his secretary hurried off messages to Howe and to Carleton, that the empress had given the most ample assurances of letting them have any number of infantry that might be wanted. On the eighth, Suffolk despatched a second courier to Gunning, with a project of a treaty for taking a body of Russian troops into the pay and service of Great Britain. The treaty was to continue for two years, within which the king and his ministers were confident of crushing the insurrection. The levy money for the troops might be seven pounds sterling a man, payabl
Chapter 52: The capture of Montreal. August—November, 1775. when Carleton heard of the surrender of Ticon- Chap. LII.} 1775. deroga to Allen and Arnold, hardihood to rise of themselves, they were willing to welcome an invasion. Carleton, in his distress, appealed to the Catholic bishop. That prelate, who was a strgy, and the French nobility, had hardly added a hundred men to the garrison. Carleton thought himself abandoned by all the earth, and wrote to the commander in chilligent, but very turbulent and troublesome. Anxious to relieve St. John's, Carleton, after the capture of Allen, succeeded in assembling about nine hundred Canadie exertions got together about eight hundred Indians, Canadians, and regulars, Carleton, on the last day of October embarked them at Montreal, in thirty four boats, t, that they retired precipitately with loss and in disorder. On the news of Carleton's defeat, McLean, de- Nov. serted by the Canadians, and losing all hope of su
he humane instructions given to Arnold enjoined respect for the rights of property and the freedom of opinion, and aimed at conciliating the affectionate cooperation of the Canadians. If Lord Chatham's son, so wrote Washington, should be in Canada, and in any way should fall into your power, you cannot pay too much honor to the son of so illustrious a character, and so true a friend to America. Chatham, on his part, from his fixed opinion of the war, withdrew his son from the service; and Carleton, anticipating that decision, had already sent him home as bearer of despatches. To the Canadians, Washington's words were: The cause of America and of liberty is the cause of every virtuous American citizen, whatever may be his religion or his descent. Come then, range yourselves under the standard of general liberty. Boats and provisions having been collected, the detachment, on the evening of the thirteenth of September, marched to Medford. On the nineteenth they sailed from Newbu
mery entered Montreal, Chap. LIV.} 1775 Nov. Carleton, with more than a hundred regulars and Canadiut in the darkest hour of the previous night, Carleton, entering a small boat in the disguise of a ps of capitulation. But on the twenty second, Carleton ordered all persons who would not join in thef the garrison, the small military ability of Carleton, offered chances of victory. The first actdressed an extravagant and menacing letter to Carleton, which was sent by a woman of the country, anerwards shot into the town upon an arrow; but Carleton would hold no communication with him, and eve of parley with rebels. Montgomery knew that Carleton was sincere, and if necessary would sooner beered, that the repeated defiance would induce Carleton to come out; but he could not be provoked intthe men lay on their arms; in the upper town, Carleton and others not on duty slept in their clothesthat the other attacks were only feints, left Carleton free to concentrate all his force against the
Americans and as many wavering Canadians. The force commanded by Carleton was twice as numerous as both, and was concentrated in the well prts nursed them with the kindness that their religion required; and Carleton, by proclamation, offered them proper care in the general hospital with the regiments from Ireland and others, put into the hands of Carleton an army of nine thousand nine hundred and eighty four effective me; and moreover, twenty five transports, laden with troops, had, by Carleton's directions, been piloted past Quebec without stopping, and had aprisoners; the main body, saved, as British officers asserted, by Carleton's want of alertness, and Chap. LXVII.} 1776. June. his calling ipointments, made resistance impossible. Slow and cautious as were Carleton's movements, any further delay would enable the British to pass abBurgoyne, who excused his inactivity by pleading instructions from Carleton to hazard nothing till the column on his right should be able to c