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H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 3: Fortifications.Their importance in the defence of States proved by numerous historical examples (search)
ch Revolution, wars were carried on mainly by the system of positions--one party confining their operations to the security of certain important places, while the other directed their whole attention to the siege and capture of these places. But Carnot and Napoleon changed this system, at the same time with the system of tactics, or rather, returned from it to the old and true system of strategic operations. Some men, looking merely at the fact that a change was made, but without examining the the allies in check for a whole year; and again, in 1792, compelled the Austrians to raise the siege after an unsuccessful attack of fifteen days. Antwerp, in 1585, sustained a siege of fourteen months against greatly superior forces; in 1814 Carnot defended the citadel of this place for four months, and until an armistice had been concluded between the contending parties; in 1832, it sustained, with a garrison of only 4,500 men and 145 pieces of ordnance, a siege of twenty-five days, agains
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 13: permanent fortifications.—Historical Notice of the progress of this Art.—Description of the several parts of a Fortress, and the various Methods of fortifying a position (search)
those of Cormontaigne. Some of these modifications are very valuable improvements, while others are of a more character. Bousmard is, on the whole, a very able writer, and his works should be found in the library of every military engineer. Carnot's celebrated treatise was published in 1810. He was evidently a man of genius, and during his career at the head of the War Department of France, numerous and very important improvements were made in the several branches of the military art, andew fortifications of Western Germany are modifications of Rempler's system, as improved by De la Chiche and Montalembert. It is said that General Aster, the directing engineer, has also introduced some of the leading principles of Chasseloup and Carnot. The English engineers have satisfied themselves with following in the track of their continental neighbors, and can offer no claims to originality. Of the system of fortification now followed in our service we must decline expressing any o
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 14: field-engineering.—Field Fortifications.—Military Communications.—Military Bridges.—Sapping, Mining, and the attack and defence of a fortified place (search)
-le-Duc. Elemens de fortification. Bellaire. La science des ingenieurs. Belidor. L'art universel des fortifications. Bitainvieu. Nouvelle maniere de fortifier les places. Blondel. Les sept sieges de Lille. Brun Lavaine. Defense des places fortes. Carnot. Memoire sur la fortification. Carnot. Defense de Saragosse. Cavallero. Memoires sur la fortification. Choumara. Nouvelle fortification. Coehorn. Theorie de la fortification. Cugnot. Des fortifications, &c. &c. Darcon. Relation de la defense de Carnot. Defense de Saragosse. Cavallero. Memoires sur la fortification. Choumara. Nouvelle fortification. Coehorn. Theorie de la fortification. Cugnot. Des fortifications, &c. &c. Darcon. Relation de la defense de Dantzik. D'Artois. Les fortifications. Deville. Peribologie. Dilich. De la fortification permanente. Dufour. A work of merit. Essai sur la defense des états par les fortifications. Duvivier. Attaque et defense des places du camp de St. Omer. L‘école de la fortification. Fallois. Introduction à la fortification. De Fer. Precis de la defense de Valenciennes. Ferrand. Traite theorique, &c. Foissac-Latour. Examen detaille, &c. Foissac-Latour. Les ouvrages militaires de Fosse. Instruction sur la fort
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 15: military Education—Military schools of France, Prussia, Austria, Russia, England, &c.—Washington's reasons for establishing the West point Academy.—Rules of appointment and Promotion in foreign Services.—Absurdity and injustice of our own system. (search)
of the age. His whole life was devoted to the military art. Berthier and Marmont were both sons of officers, and, being early intended for the army, they received military educations. Lecourbe had also the advantages of a military education before entering the army. Pichegru and Duroc were pupils of the military school of Brienne. Drouet was a pupil of the artillery school. Foy was first educated in the college of Soissons, and afterwards in the military schools of La Fere and Chalons. Carnot, called the Organizer of French victory, received a good early education, and was also a pupil of the engineer school of Mezieres. Several of the distinguished French generals at first received good scientific and literary educations in the colleges of France, and then acquired their military instruction in the subordinate grades of the army; and by this means, before their promotion to responsible offices, acquired a thorough practical instruction, founded on a basis of a thorough prelim