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s excavator. Willard's excavator, which has been so widely used in making railway embankments in the broad West, is shown in Fig. 1895. Its principal use in practice has been to dig soil by the side of the track and dump it on to the road, to form a bed for the ballast and sleepers. The earth is scraped up by the shovel, carried between the wheel and a traveling apron, and dropped into a hopper. When this is full, the machine is drawn on to the site of the road and the load dumped. Chapman's excavator. The excavator (Fig. 1896) is mounted on a carriage which traverses on a temporary track. At one end of the frame is a crane, which has a circular adjustment on its axial post. To the end of the chain-tackle is suspended a scoop made of boiler-iron, whose lip is a steel edge with fingers. Direction is given to the scoop by means of a beam which may be called the scoop-handle, and when the scoop has been thrust by its weight into the earth, the beam affords a fulcrum on w
place; the fuel was drawn forward horizontally by a screw, as required, and in this way the smoke was nearly all consumed. In the same year Hawkins patented a shovel for supplying coal to the fire at bottom. The shovel had a cover, and the contained coal was pushed forward into the fire by a piston. The revolving grate was introduced by Steel and Brunton, English patents, about 1819. Grates. Grate-bars of hollow tubes, connecting waterboxes at front and rear, were introduced by Chapman in 1824. See smoke-consuming furnace. In 1825, Atkins attached a fuel-chamber to the back grates, the bottom of the chamber being made to slope at a considerable angle. Jeakes, in 1854, formed a movable grate, which was lowered into the fuel-box, gradually consuming the fuel and admitting a supply of air from above to support the combustion. Rowe, in 1854, introduced coal into the bottom of the grate by a pipe leading from a side reservoir of fuel. In 1854, Bachhoffner consu
ns were connected by cross-heads and connecting-rods to cranks on the axles of spur-pinions, which geared into the main spur-wheel, which formed the driver. It was long used on a colliery railway between Leeds and Middletown, 3 1/2 miles distant, and perhaps was the first successful locomotive in regular use. It drew trains of 30 tons weight 3 3/4 miles per hour. In 1812, Blackett made a series of experiments which proved that the expedient of a pinion and rack-rail was unnecessary; and Chapman patented a A, Blenkinsop's locomotive (1811). B, Hedley's locomotive (1813)> locomotive with eight wheels driven by gearing, for the purpose of increasing the tractive adhesion. In the same year, Brunton invented a means of driving a locomotive by two propellers consisting of jointed rods intended to imitate the action of the hind legs of a horse. Analogous contrivances were adopted by Gordon and Gurney. In the spring of 1813, William Hedley built a locomotive with four smooth driv
, the safety-chamber is introduced to afford a space into which the oil may expand, and from which it returns when contracting. The chamber is detachable and capable of introduction into the tank or barrel at the ordinary opening for filling. Other forms of tanks for transportation are built of metal, inside box-cars, with devices for staying, filling, emptying, etc. Much ingenuity has been expended in making barrels of wood or of metal for shipping petroleum and coal-oil. Day and Chapman's metallic barrel is inclosed in one of wood. Fig. 3394 shows an apparatus for applying solutions to oil-barrels to render them impervious to oil. The barrel J is placed in the upper chamber and the lid closed tightly. The solution from vat B is allowed to flow into A, and the faucet D is then closed. Steam is then admitted from the pipe entering the bottom of the closed vessel A, and, collecting in the top of the vessel, forces the liquid into the chamber in which the cask J is place
per-files and temporary binders. Pa′per-clip. A clasp for holding papers together. A means of filing bills, letters, etc. It may be, — A suspensible hook on which the papers are strung. A wire on a stand or suspensible, on which the papers are impaled. A pair of jaws grasping papers, as with the finger and thumb, and intended to lie on the desk or be suspended by a ring. See also paper-clamp; paper-file, etc. Pa′per cloth. A fabric patented in England in 1843 by Henry Chapman. It is prepared by winding cotton, linen, or other cloth upon a roller, which is introduced between the third press-felt of a Fourdrinier machine; between this roller and the endless felt is placed a trough containing an adhesive solution, which is, by means of a roller in a trough, applied to the cloth; at the same time, the continuous sheet of paper formed by the machine in the usual manner is carried forward, meeting the cloth, and the two passing together through the pressing-rolls <
ot be sufficient under ordinary circumstances to enable the locomotive to draw the train. See locomotive, Fig. 2984. Chapman, in 1812, substituted four pairs of drivers connected by gearing, so as to multiply the frictional contact. Snowden, January 16, 1872, cord band, secured by wire. Carpenter, December 22, 1868, wire. Clinton, July 13, 1869, cord. Chapman, May 7, 1872, wire. Fowler, June 7, 1870, stitches woven from gavel. Whitney, May 26, 1874, wire. Reaping mach cables and cordage. See also English patents, — Sylvester, 1783; Seymour, 1784; Fothergill, 1793; Balfour, 1793, 1798; Chapman, 1797, 1799, 1807. In the year 1820, machinery was introduced into the United States from England, for working the sp, 11, 1865 79,334.Ferry30, 6, 1868 72,729.Fink31, 12, 1867 72,831.Ferry31, 12, 1867 66,312.Donehoo2, 7, 1867 59,965.Chapman27, 11, 1866 59,819.Clark20, 11, 1866 73,875.Clark28, 1, 1868 61,522.Donehoo29, 1, 1867 52,139.Christ and Stehman23,
00,934ShiverMar. 16, 1870. 127,189SageMay 28, 1872. 6. Spring with Cone-Pulleys. No.Name.Date. 13,661SingerOct. 9, 1855. 51,012BuchananNov. 2, 1865. 70,803Chapman et al.Nov. 12, 1867. 7. Spring wound by Stirrups. 141,996ChambersAug. 19, 1873. 8. Weight. 44,909TuckermanNov. 1, 1864. 115,864JohnsonJune 13, 1871. 148,311ique with the face of the abutment, instead of being at right angles thereto. As originally built, the voussoirs were laid parallel to the abutments. In 1787, Chapman, in constructing a bridge over the Kildare Canal, was led to the invention of the correct principle, making the joints of the voussoirs rectangular with the face Watt's patent of 1785, in which the accessory body of air passes through the grate-bars of a supplementary fire, which assists in the combustion of the smoke. Chapman's furnace (1824) had hollow grate-bars, forming a series of parallel tubes opening into two boxes, one in front and the other behind the grate. The rear one conn
ral ground. Quite a change since Gibraltar, Gebel el Tarik, Tarik's Mountain, was the scene of the landing of this lieutenant of the Emir Musa, April, A. D. 711. Musa the Saracen conquered Spain. The galleries in the rock are nearly 3 mites long, large enough to admit a carriage, and are pierced for cannon at every 12 yards. One thousand cannon are thus mounted. A tunnel under the Thames, to connect Gravesend with the Essex side, was projected by Ralph Dodd, Esq., in 1798. In 1804, Mr. Chapman proposed to tunnel below the river from Rotherhithe to the north bank. In 1807 the work was actually commenced by sinking a shaft about 300 feet from the river, but was abandoned, on account of the influx of sand and water. In 1807, the celebrated Cornish engineer Trevethick was placed in charge of the work, and, with great labor, succeeded in carrying a drift 5 feet 2 inches high, 2 feet 6 inches wide at top, and 3 feet wide at bottom, for a distance of 1,046 feet under the bed of th
ide of sodium, similarly introduced, renders the wood flexible when seasoned. Earthy chlorides are employed for rendering it incombustible. In a similar way odors, resins, and coloring matters may be introduced. Baron Champy indicated a method of preserving wood by dipping while green in tallow, at 200 Fah.; the water and gases being expelled, the melted tallow penetrates the pores under atmospheric pressure. Payen, employing nearly the same process, substituted rosin for tallow. Chapman's process consisted in a peculiar system of treatment with sulphate of iron. Phosphate of baryta, formed within the fiber of wood, has been used as a preventive of decay. The wood is to be first steeped in a solution containing 7 per cent of the phosphate of soda. When dry it is again treated with a solution containing 13 per cent of chloride of barium. Payne, 1842, used sulphate of iron (green copperas). The wood is introduced into a cylindrical vessel, and steam admitted to ex
e grandiose. They talked boastfully of the number of their niggers, and told how they were accustomed to wallop them. Then there were marriage ties between the sections. Many domestic alliances strengthened the bond between slavery and the aristocracy of the North. In the circles in which these things were going on, it was the fashion to denounce the Abolitionists. Women were the most bitter. The slightest suspicion of sympathy with the fanatics was fatal to social ambition. Mrs. Henry Chapman, the wife of a wealthy Boston shipping merchant who gave orders that no slaves should be carried on his vessels, was a brilliant woman and a leader in the highest sense in that city. But when she consented to preside over a small conference of Anti-Slavery women, society cut her dead, her former associates refusing to recognize her on the street. The families of Arthur and Lewis Tappan, the distinguished merchants of New York, were noted for their intelligence and culture, but when
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