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The Cambridge of eighteen hundred and ninety-six: a picture of the city and its industries fifty years after its incorporation (ed. Arthur Gilman) 22 0 Browse Search
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 20 0 Browse Search
Cambridge sketches (ed. Estelle M. H. Merrill) 14 0 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 13 1 Browse Search
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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cambridge (search)
Cambridge City, and one of the county seats of Middlesex county. Mass., separated from Boston by the Charles River; was founded in 1631 under the name of Newtown; and is noted as the place where Washington took command of the Continental army on July 2, 1775; as the seat of Harvard University (q. v.); and as the place where the sons of Alvan Clark carry on the manufacture of astronomical instruments which have a world-wide reputation. In 1900 the city had a total assessed valuation of taxable property of $94,467,930, and the net city and water debt was $6,226,182. The population in 1890 was 70,028; in 1900, 91,886. The second Synod of Massachusetts met at Cambridge in 1646, and was not dissolved until 1648. The synod composed and adopted a system of church discipline called The Cambridge platform, and recommended it, together with the Westminster Confession of Faith, to the general court and to the churches. The latter, in New England, generally complied with the recommen
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Clark, Alvan 1804- (search)
Clark, Alvan 1804- Optician; born at Ashfield, Mass., March 8, 1804, a descendant of the captain of the Mayflower. He showed a genius for art in early youth, and became an engraver and portrait-painter. In 1835 he relinquished engraving and set up a studio for painting in Boston. He was over forty years of age before he beches in diameter, then the largest ever made, went to Chicago. It revealed twenty stars, hitherto unseen by mortal eyes, in the nebula of Orion. With his sons, Mr. Clark established a manufactory of telescopes at Cambridge. They have produced some of extraordinary power. In 1883 they completed a telescope for the Russian governing power of 2,000 diameters. It was the largest in the world, for which they were paid $33,000. At the time of his death, in Cambridge, Mass., Aug. 19, 1887, Mr. Clark was engaged in making a telescope for the Lick Observatory, California, having a lens 36 inches in diameter. After his death the business was carried on by his
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Telescope. (search)
Telescopes were first constructed in the Netherlands about 1608. In 1853 Alvan Clark, of Cambridgeport, Mass., a comparatively unknown portraitpainter, after havd at the Leander McCormick Observatory, University of Virginia, both made by Alvan Clark & Sons, have a 26-inch aperture. The largest reflecting telescope in the Unversity, 28-inch mirror. Other notable telescopes are at Princeton University (Clark, 23-inch); Rochester, N. Y. (Clark, 16-inch); Madison, Wis. (Clark, 15.5-inch);Clark, 16-inch); Madison, Wis. (Clark, 15.5-inch); Dudley, at Albany, N. Y. (Fitz, 13-inch); University of Michigan (Fitz, 12.5-inch); and Middletown University (Clark, 12-inch).h); Madison, Wis. (Clark, 15.5-inch); Dudley, at Albany, N. Y. (Fitz, 13-inch); University of Michigan (Fitz, 12.5-inch); and Middletown University (Clark, 12-inch).h); Madison, Wis. (Clark, 15.5-inch); Dudley, at Albany, N. Y. (Fitz, 13-inch); University of Michigan (Fitz, 12.5-inch); and Middletown University (Clark, 12-inch).
nstruments at a very great expense. The Greenwich Observatory was erected five years later; Flamstead, under the title of Astronomer Royal, was its first superintendent. The Yale College Observatory was started in 1828, a donation made by Mr. Clark being expended in buying a telescope of Mr. Dollond of London. It has a focal length of ten feet, and five inches aperture. The Williams College Observatory was the first regularly constituted observatory in the United States, 1836. It hassual with that class of instruments. Sidereal motion is communicated to the instrument by clock-work. Its objectglass is 25 inches in diameter. The new refracting instrument for the Naval Observatory of Washington, D. C., is being made by Alvan Clark, of Cambridgeport, Mass., and will probably be completed during the present year (1873). Its object-glass is complete, and has a diameter of 27 inches. It is the largest of its class, and great hopes are reasonably entertained of its performan
mpracticable. The improvement in this respect is in a large degree due to the exertions of Mr. Alvan Clark, of Cambridgeport. Mass. who, like most other great improvers of the telescope, is a self-taught artist. It would seem that opticians, like poets, are born, not made. Mr. Clark's first objectglass-es. strange to say, were made for England, but in 1862 he completed one having a clear aptorial refracting telescope at Washington, D. C. at Washington, completed in November. 1873. Mr. Clark is confident of being able to produce an object-glass of 5 feet 6 inches clear aperture and 75hes aperture; 14 ft. 4 1/2 in. focal length Alleghany City13 inches aperture. The disks for Clark's lenses are made by Chance & Co., of Birmingham, England. The crucibles are of clay, and areits total length being 32 feet 6 inches. The rough glass for the object-lens was received by Messrs. Clark in December, 1871, and was ground, polished, and finished in November, 1872. Another year w
exterior. I remember once borrowing two valuable prisms from him, when I was a green young instructor, which I succeeded in chipping. On returning them to him with great perturbation of spirit, he instantly said: Oh, I always intended to get Alvan Clark to reduce the size of these prisms, and he would have had to chip off these edges. I loved the man instantly. The observatory has prospered exceedingly, and it is now, under Professor Pickering, the principal astrophysical observatory in Ameer, by great minds. I remember Professor Benjamin Peirce once remarking with a gleam of his wonderful eyes: It takes an eagle to train eaglets. The subject of astronomy has always had in Cambridge the peculiar advantages of the services of Alvan Clark and his sons. They can be called artist mechanicians. They have built the largest and best telescopes in the world, and even Russia has been a suitor at the door of their workshop. Their labors in connection with astronomical research illus
school, as early as 1825. In the same year a high school for girls was opened in Boston. Its very success was its defeat. It was crowded to overflowing, and scores were rejected. The citizens became alarmed. The threatened expense was enormous. Moreover, there were those who feared that girls in humble life would be educated beyond their station! In less than two years, in the flush of prosperity, the school was voted out of existence, not to be revived for a quarter of a century. Bishop Clark, of Rhode Island, informs me that the Lowell High School, which was founded in 1831, had girls as well as boys in its membership from the beginning. He was the first principal of the school, and speaks, therefore, with authority. New Bedford opened a high school for both sexes earlier still. Of the fourteen high schools reported to be in existence in 1838 in Massachusetts, there were several where co-education had been the rule for years. The higher education of girls was in the air.
sidents of the city of Cambridge are constantly employed in this factory. Alvan Clark & Sons. In an article written by Professor Simon Newcomb, and published i home in Cambridgeport, melted them, and cast them into a disk. His father, Alvan Clark, assisted him, and the combined skill of father and son produced a five-inch reflecting telescope. Alvan Clark, the father, was born in Ashfield, Mass., in 1804, and was at this time a portrait painter; he had decided mechanical tastes, and for a glass, which was immediately followed by an order for a second one. Mr. Clark commenced the construction of a telescope for the University of Mississippi, e the Tilton House. The firm moved to the present location at about 1860. Alvan Clark died in August, 1887, and George B. Clark in December, 1891. The business iare thoroughly equipped with all necessary machinery and tools. The firm of Alvan Clark & Sons stands at the head of telescope-makers. Their reputation is world-wi
urch, 24 ; other Universalist churches, 241. New Church services, 241. United Presbyterian Church, 241. Reformed Presbyterian Church, 241. Union Methodist Episcopal Church, 241. Swedish services, 241. Colored churches and mission, 242. Church-members, suffrage limited to, 6. Church property exempt from taxation, 320. Cities in Massachusetts, 54. Citizens' Trade Association, corporate members, 297; object, 297; membership, 297; its work, 297; officers, 297. City Hall, 86. Clark, Alvan, 76, 379. Clerk, City, 402. Clerk of Committees, 402. Clough, Arthur Hugh, 68. Clubs: Colonial, 294; Newtowne, 295; Cambridge, 295; Economy, 295; Cantabrigia, 296. College, the, General Court makes a grant for, 235; ordered to be placed in the New Town, 235; John Harvard's gifts to, 8; other gifts to, 8; given the name Harvard, 8; the yard boundaries, 8; why it was placed in the New Town. 235; meant to serve the churches, 235; influence of the ministers on its life, 235
62. Curtis Davis & Co., 358. James C. Davis & Co., 359. C. L. Jones & Co., 361. Lysander Kemp & Sons, 360. Charles R. Teele, 362. Spring-Beds. Howe Spring-Bed Co., 393. New England Spring-Bed Co., 392. Stone work. William A. Bertsch, 389. Charles River Stone Co., 389. Connecticut Steam Stone Co., 389. Austin Ford & Son. 389. A. Higgins & Co., 389. John J. Horgan. 389. Alexander McDonald & Son, 388. R. J. Rutherford. 389. Union Marble and Granite Works, 389. Sugar. Revere Sugar Refinery, 394. Telescopes. Alvan Clark & Sons, 379. Tin cans. Charles E. Pierce & Co., 393. Tinware. Dover Stamping Co., 389. Seavey Manufacturing Co., 390. Turning. Standard Turning Works, 390. Twine. American Net and Twine Co., 377. Undertakers' supplies. William L. Lockhart & Co., 390. Vinegar. Cambridge Vinegar Co., 395. Waterproofed clothing. H. M. Sawyer & Son, 391. Wire work. Morss & Whyte, 351.
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