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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 16 0 Browse Search
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Breakwaters. The width of the structure is 175 feet at base and 30 feet at top, and it is composed of rough blocks of stone. A transverse section is shown at c, Fig. 882. The inner slope has an angle of 45°, the outer slope has an inclination of 3 base to 1 of hight to a depth of about 19 feet below the highest spring-tides, and from thence to the bottom of 45°. Breakwaters have also been constructed by the United States government at several lake-ports, particularly at Buffalo and Cleveland on Lake Erie, and Chicago on Lake Michigan. The covering pier or breakwater of Buffalo Harbor (d, Fig. 883) is built of stone, and cost about 8200,--000. The illustration shows a cross-section. It measures 1,452 feet in length. The top of the pier on which the roadway is formed measures eighteen feet in breadth, and is elevated about five feet above the level of the water in the harbor. On the side of the roadway which is exposed to the lake, a parapetwall, five feet in hight, exten
quires to be passed through naphtha, as it is deficient in carbon. If the owners could satisfy themselves of the continuity of the gas flow, we presume that pipes would be laid from the well to several of the large cities, such as Pittsburg, Cleveland, and Buffalo. The process of making gas consists in the distillation of coal, though other forms of hydrocarbon will yield it, and the subsequent purification of the same to purge it of noxious matters, — tar, ammonia, and sulphur. These opified sufficiently for most uses by treating it with 4 parts sulphuric and 1 part nitric acid, washing and drying. See crucible; pencil. These points are taken from the manuscript of a work on graphite, now in course of preparation, by Orestes Cleveland, President of the Dixon Crucible Company, of Jersey City. Graph-om′e-ter. A surveying instrument for taking angles. A demicircle. Graph′o-type. A process invented by Hitchcock, in which a zinc plate is covered with a thick coat<
f grinding up into a pigment, which was hardened into a block by baking, was afterward introduced with better result. When the Borrowdale mine was giving out, Conte of Paris invented the method of producing the leads by making a mixture of graphite and clay, pressing it into the required shape from a mass like dough, and baking it to the requisite hardness for use. All the pencils now made in any part of the world are made by Conteas process. The following is the method employed by Mr. Cleveland, of the Dixon Company, at Jersey City, in the production of Dixon's American graphite pencils : — The graphite is purified by various means, according to the nature of the foreign matter it may contain. Ticonderoga graphite ground fine in water is treated with sulphuric and nitric acids, and, after washing clean, heated to a bright red. See graphite. It is then mixed with water until thin enough to run very freely, and the mixture turned slowly into the hopper (see a, Fig. 3617).
rgh, Pa37.09 Washington, D. C.37.52 Baltimore, Md. (Fort McHenry)41.10 Fortress Monroe, Va.47.04 White sulphur Springs, Va37.54 Gaston, N. C.43.40 Charleston, S. C.43.63 Savannah, Ga.48.32 Key West, Fla.36.23 Fort Myers, Fla.56.55 Mt. Vernon Arsenal, Ala.66.14 Huntsville, Ala54.88 Natchez, Miss.53.55 New Orleans, La51.05 Baton Rouge, La60.16 Fort Brown. Texas33.44 Fort Bliss, Texas9.56 Fort Smith, Ark40.36 Washington. Ark54.50 Springdale, Ky.48.58 Marietta, Ohio42.70 Cleveland. Ohio37.61 Detroit. Mich.30.05 Mackinac, Mich.23.96 Richmond, Ind.43.32 Peoria, Ill41.25 Milwaukee, Wis.30.40 Fort Snelling, Minn.25.11 Muscatine, Iowa42.88 St. Louis, Mo.42.18 Fort Gibson, Ind. Ter.36.37 Fort Towson, Ind. Ter.51.08 Fort Leavenworth, Kan.31.74 Fort Kearney, Neb.25.25 Fort Randall, Dak.16.51 Fort Laramic, Wyoming15.16 Fort Massachusetts, Col.17.06 Fort Garland, Col6.11 Fort Craig, New Mexico11.67 Fort Marcy, New Mexico16.65 Fort Defiance, Arizona14.21
138, 730BouillonMay 13, 1873. (Reissue.)5,427BeanMay 27, 1873. 141,623BeanAug. 12, 1873. 141, 626BrownAug. 12, 1873. 145, 482BeanDec. 16, 1873. 146,377BrownJan. 13, 1874. 148,025BouillonMar. 3, 1874. 152,543BeanJune 30, 1874. 154,646ClevelandSept. 1, 1874. 10. Welt-Guides. 33,817TuckerNov. 26, 1861. 39,474FolsomAug. 11, 1863. 42,810WalkerMay 17, 1864. 42,846FolsomMay 24, 1864. 105,715MoscheowitzJuly 26, 1864. 11. Variety of Work. 59,983DuffyNov 27, 1866. 88,630HallApr. 6, 1on (Reissue.)Dec. 5, 1871. 121,745BarnesDec. 12, 1871. 124,812GreerMar. 19, 1872. 126,421SquierMay 7, 1872. 126,441BouchardMay 7, 1872. 127,129WilcoxMay 21, 1872. 129,998Warren et al.July 30, 1872. 131,614HowellSept. 24, 1872. 133,760Cleveland et al.Dec. 10, 1872. 134,526DuntonJan. 7, 1873. 141,367MansonJuly 29, 1873. 148,225MansonMar. 3, 1874. 150,141FayApr. 28, 1874. 152,633HerrintonJune 30, 1874. 156,161HuntoonOct. 20, 1874. 160,876ChambersMar. 16, 1875. 4. Spring with Fus
llons daily to each person. New York100 gallons daily to each person. Brooklyn50 gallons daily to each person. Philadelphia55 gallons daily to each person. Baltimore40 gallons daily to each person. Chicago75 gallons daily to each person. Boston60 gallons daily to each person. Cincinnati60 gallons daily to each person. Albany80 gallons daily to each person. Detroit83 gallons daily to each person. Jersey City99 gallons daily to each person. Buffalo61 gallons daily to each person. Cleveland40 gallons daily to each person. Columbus30 gallons daily to each person. Montreal, Canada55 gallons daily to each person. Toronto77 gallons daily to each person. London, England29 gallons daily to each person. Liverpool23 gallons daily to each person. Glasgow50 gallons daily to each person. Edinburgh38 gallons daily to each person. Dublin25 gallons daily to each person. Paris28 gallons daily to each person. Turin22 gallons daily to each person. Toulouse26 gallons daily to each p