caused by appropriate gearing to make from 150 to 200 revolutions per minute, causing the stuff to pass between the cutters in the direction indicated by the arrows; a hood g is provided to prevent the pulp from being thrown out of the machine, and one side of this is a sieve h with a removable cover i, through which the foul water expelled from the pulp passes and is discharged through the opening k. See also half-stuff machine.
（Paper-making.) An apparatus invented by Cowan of Valley Field, near Edinburgh, for measuring out a uniform and exact supply of pulp to the paper-machine, according to the width and thickness of the sheet of paper to be made.
It consists of a cup having an adjustable slide, which may be set so as to deliver from a box connected with the pulp-chest and kept constantly filled with the exact quantity of pulp required for a sheet of given dimensions, thus securing uniformity of thickness.
A machine for grinding paper pulp.
The ropes especially devoted to the sails are the
Canvas or sail-cloth is made in grades of quality and strength.
Of the latter it is Nos. 1 to 8.
The first number is the strongest, and is used for storm-sails; No. 8 for small sails and studdingsails.
The seams of the cloth in a square sail are vertical.
In a fore-and-aft sail they are parallel with the after-leach.
In Cowan's patent (English) the seams are horizontal.
The seams have also been made diagonal, with no improved effect, but rather otherwise.
Some of the terms employed by sail-makers are, —
Seaming: sewing the breadths together.
Goring; cutting out the wedge-shaped pieces where the sail narrows.
Tabling; putting on the strengthening strips around the edge, where the cringles are inserted.
Sewing on the reef, belly, lining, and buntline bands.
Roping; sewing on the bolt-rope.
of the step and back into the oil chamber through the aperture e. The oil and sediment may be removed by unscrewing the plugs f g.
Great variety is shown in the steps for spindles of spinningmachines.
One in which the piston reciprocates vertically, as distinguished from the horizontal, inclined, or rotary, — all common forms.
A silver name-ring around the leg of a hawk.
See under the following heads:—