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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Winthrop, Fitz-john 1639-1707 (search)
Winthrop, Fitz-john 1639-1707 Military officer; born in Ipswich, Mass., March 19, 1639; son of John Winthrop, 2d; went to England; held a commission under Richard Cromwell; and, returning to Connecticut, became a representative in the Congress of the confederacy in 1671. He served as major in King Philip's War, and in 1686 was one of the council of Governor Andros. In 1690 he was major-general of the army designed to operate against Canada, and conducted the expedition with skill and prudence. He was agent of the colony in England; and so wisely did he conduct affairs that the legislature of Massachusetts gave him $2,000. He was governor of Connecticut from 1698 until his death. Like his father, he was fond of scientific pursuits, and was a fellow of the Royal Society. He died in Boston, Mass., Nov. 27, 1707.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Yankee Doodle, (search)
w England in colonial times it was known as Lydia Fisher's Jig. Among other verses of the song was this: Lucy Locket lost her pocket, Lydia Fisher found it; Not a bit of money in it, Only binding round it. A song composed in derision of Cromwell by a loyal poet commenced with Nankey Doodle came in town, Riding on a pony, With a feather in his hat Upon a macaroni. A doodle is defined in the old English dictionaries as a sorry, trifling fellow, and this tune was applied to CromwelCromwell in that sense by the Cavaliers. A macaroni was a knot in which the feather was fastened. In a satirical poem accompanying a caricature of William Pitt in 1766, in which he appears on stilts, the following verse occurs: Stamp Act! le diable! dat is de job, sir: Dat is de Stiltman's nob, sir, To be America's nabob, sir, Doodle, noodle, do. Kossuth, when in the United States, said that when Hungarians heard the tune they recognized it as an old national dance of their own. Did Yan
George Bancroft, History of the Colonization of the United States, Vol. 1, 17th edition., Preface to the first edition (search)
and the errors, sometimes repeated even by considerate writers, whose distrust was not excited, have almost acquired a prescriptive right to a place in the annals of America. This state of things has increased the difficulty of my undertaking, and, I believe, also, its utility; and I cannot regret the labor which has enabled me to present, under a somewhat new aspect, the early love of liberty in Virginia; the causes and nature of its loyalty; its commercial freedom; the colonial policy of Cromwell; the independent spirit of Maryland; the early institutions of Rhode Island; and the stern independence of the New England Puritans. On these and other points, on which I have differed from received accounts, I appeal with confidence to the judgment of those who are critically acquainted with the sources of our early history. I have dwelt at considerable length on this first period, because it contains the germ of our institutions. The maturity of the nation is but a continuation of i
George Bancroft, History of the Colonization of the United States, Vol. 1, 17th edition., Preface to the first edition (search)
and the errors, sometimes repeated even by considerate writers, whose distrust was not excited, have almost acquired a prescriptive right to a place in the annals of America. This state of things has increased the difficulty of my undertaking, and, I believe, also, its utility; and I cannot regret the labor which has enabled me to present, under a somewhat new aspect, the early love of liberty in Virginia; the causes and nature of its loyalty; its commercial freedom; the colonial policy of Cromwell; the independent spirit of Maryland; the early institutions of Rhode Island; and the stern independence of the New England Puritans. On these and other points, on which I have differed from received accounts, I appeal with confidence to the judgment of those who are critically acquainted with the sources of our early history. I have dwelt at considerable length on this first period, because it contains the germ of our institutions. The maturity of the nation is but a continuation of i
were to be purchased on shipboard, as men buy horses at a fair. Sad State of Virginia, 1657, p. 4, 5. Hammond's Leah and Rachel, 7. In 1672, the average price in the colonies, where five years of service were due, was about ten pounds; while a negro was worth twenty or twenty-five pounds. Blome's Jamaica, 84 and 16. So usual was this manner of dealing in Englishmen, that not the Scots only, who were taken in the field of Dunbar, were sent into involuntary servitude in New England, Cromwell and Cotton, in Hutchinson's Coll. 233—235. but the royalist prisoners of the battle of Worcester; Suffolk County Records, i. 5 and 6. The names of two hundred and seventy are recorded. The lading of the John and Sarah was ironwork, household stuff, and other provisions for planters and Scotch prisoners. Recorded May 14, 1652. and the leaders in the insurrection of Penruddoc, Burton's Diary, IV. 262. 271. 5 Stith, 171. Godwin's Commonwealth, IV. 172. in spite of the remonstrance
i. 156. A naval war soon followed, which Cromwell eager- 1652 ly desired, and Holland as earnef to sweep the English flag from the seas. Cromwell was not disposed to trammel the industry of Vpain, the protector of English shipping, that Cromwell laid claims to glory. The crown passed from of Navigation were the surviving monuments of Cromwell. The protection of English shipping, thus his an accidental and transient arrangement. Cromwell never made any appointments for Virginia; notstill referred the decision of the dispute to Cromwell. The members of the assembly, apprehensive ims. Hening, i. 504, 505. The death of Cromwell made no change in the 1658. constitution of in private, and unanimously resolved that Richard Cromwell should be acknowledged. Hening, i. 511ard, i. 599—602. A remonstrance, addressed to Cromwell, demanded an 1656. unlimited liberty; and wet it was not refused; for, some months before Cromwell's death, 1658. Mar. the Virginians invited t[2 more...]
y. A new assembly, convened at Patux- Oct ent, acknowledged the authority of Cromwell; but it also exasperated the whole Romish party by their wanton disfranchisemed to popery, prelacy, Bacon, 1654, c. IV or licentiousness of opinion. Yet Cromwell, a friend to religious toleration, and willing that the different sects, like omed to Maryland. He was kept a prisoner during part of the administration of Cromwell; On this occasion were published Strong's Babylon's Fall in Maryland, and Leterminate will. Barber, in Langford, 15. And yet the same causes which led Cromwell to neglect the internal concerns of Virginia, compelled him to pay but little during his government were thought worthy of being perpetuated. The death of Cromwell left the condition of England uncertain, and might well diffuse a gloom througbe done? England was in a less settled condition than ever. Would the son of Cromwell permanently hold the place of his father? Would Charles II. be restored? Di
ard, i. 122 It has been said that Hampden and Cromwell were on board this fleet. Bates and Dugdal no circumstances in the lives of Hampden and Cromwell corroborating the story, but many to establisWinthrop, i. 266, is decisive Had Hampden and Cromwell been of the party, they too would have reacheon, i. App. VIII. After the successes of Cromwell in Ireland, he 1651. voluntarily expressed hich the inhabitants enjoyed the confidence of Cromwell throughout all the period of his success. Thule his spirit, rather than to storm cities. Cromwell, in return, was moved by the sincerity of theThe people of New England were ever sure that Cromwell would listen to their requests, and would takst, will fight best; such was the judgment of Cromwell, the greatest soldier of his age. It was irtunes. Massachusetts never acknowledged Richard Cromwell; it read clearly in the aspect of partiesolonies? Would it imitate the magnanimity of Cromwell, and suffer the staple of the south still to [1 more...]
, where they constituted towns and sections of cities, introducing manufactures before unknown. A suburb of London was filled with Chap. XIII.} French mechanics; the prince of Orange gained entire regiments of soldiers, as brave as those whom Cromwell led to victory; a colony of them reached even the Cape of Good Hope. In our American colonies they were welcome every where. The religious sympathies of New England were awakened; did any arrive in poverty, having barely escaped with life?—theies were in no respect changed. When Colleton met the colonial 1686. Nov. parliament which had been elected before his arrival, a majority refused to acknowledge the binding force of the constitutions; by a violent act of power, Colleton, like Cromwell in a similar instance in English history, excluded the refractory members from the parliament. What could follow but a protest from the disfranchised members against any measures which might be adopted by the remaining minority? A new parlia
ded; and the law was designed to secure and to hasten their enfranchisement. The insurrection, which was plotted by a number of servants in 1663, had its origin in impatience of servitude and oppression. A few bondmen, soldiers Chap XIV.} of Cromwell, and probably Roundheads, were excited by their own sufferings, and by the nature of life in the wilderness, to indulge once more in vague desires for a purer church and a happier condition. From the character of the times, their passions were ortunes. Clarendon. Their numbers were constantly Chap. XIV.} 1660. increasing; their character and education procured them respect and influence; yet no collisions ensued. If one assembly had, what Massachusetts never did, submitted to Richard Cromwell—if another had elected Berkeley as governor—the power of the people still preserved its vigor, and controlled legislative action. But on the tidings of the restoration of Charles ii., the fires of loyalty blazed up, perhaps the more vehemen
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