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H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 13: permanent fortifications.—Historical Notice of the progress of this Art.—Description of the several parts of a Fortress, and the various Methods of fortifying a position (search)
gineers, who laid the foundation of the corps du Genie, which has since become a school of military instruction for the world. Among the early French engineers may be distinguished Lafontaine Do Serre, Feuquieres, and St. Remy. Pedro Navarro had been appointed a member of this corps, but his attention was more specially directed to mining, and we do not learn that he distinguished himself in the construction of any fortification. In Germany, in the beginning of the sixteenth century, Albert Durer distinguished himself as a writer on fortification; his book is remarkable as containing the germs of many of the improvements which were made by those who followed him. This is the more to be wondered at as he was not a professed engineer. After him followed Spekel, a native of Strasburg, who died in 1589. His writings are valuable as showing the state of the art at that time, and the changes which he himself introduced. He was an engineer of much practical knowledge and experience, h
's Speculum Humanoe Salvationes, printed at Haarlem, 1440, has engravings on wood printed in different color from the body of the work. Fust and Shoeffer's Psalter, 1457, had initial letters and flourished lines printed in two colors, red and blue. The art soon became common, and towards the end of the fifteenth century imitations of pen-andink sketches on a colored ground were made by celebrated artists. This was followed by drawings on blocks in regular sets for separate colors. Albert Durer engraved such blocks; Parmigiano, Titian, and Raffaelle made designs on blocks for the purpose. Jackson started a paper-hanging factory at Chelsea, England, 1720 – 1754, the designs being printed in oil by wooden blocks. He appears to have been unsuccessful in some details and in the speculation. The art was adopted and improved by a succession of persons in England and elsewhere; Skippe and Savage of the former, and Gubitz of Berlin, adding considerably to the eminence already att
mes as may be necessary. The wall of wax is then removed, the surface of the plate cleaned with turpentine, and the plate is sent to the printer for a proof of the etching, which is complete. It may be finished by a graver to give it more effectiveness, but it then partakes of the character of a line engraving. Etching is all accomplished by the point and acid. The art is believed to have originated in Germany, judging by its name etzen; but the earliest known practitioners were Albert Durer, a German, and Agostino Veneziano and Parmegiano, Italians. These were contemporaries. Etching on soft ground is in imitation of chalk or pencil drawing, but has been abandoned since lithography has attained excellence. The soft ground is made by adding one part of hog's lard to three parts etching ground (see ground), which is laid on the plate with the dabber in the usual way. A piece of smooth writing-paper, having the design in outline, is damped and stretched over the plate. A
stablished the art in that country. Casting glass was invented by Theraut, a Frenchman, in 1688, and was introduced in England, at Prescott, in 1773. The art of coloring glass was well understood in ancient Egypt, as we observed in reference to the imitation of glass. Stained glass was originally a mosaic, made up of different pieces, arranged, according to color, to form a design. About 1500, a French artist at Marseilles incorporated colors with the glass, which were baked in. Albert Durer practiced the art. Window-glass. Thickness and Weight per Square Foot. No.Thickness.WeightNo.Thickness.Weight. Inch.Oz.Inch.Oz. 12.0591221.121 13.0631324.11124 15.0711526.12526 16.0771632.15432 17.0831736.16736 19.0911942.242 Win′dow-jack. A scaffold for carpenters, painters, or cleaners, enabling them to reach the outside of the window. The frame has pivoted brace-bars to rest against the outside of the house, and hold-fasts hinged to an adjustable block; these re
Frank Preston Stearns, Cambridge Sketches, C. P. Cranch. (search)
out a single pursuit to its perfection, and if he had not lived so many years in Europe, he would have been a more celebrated man; but Cranch did not care for celebrity. He was content to live and to let live. Men of great force, like Macaulay and Emerson, who impress their personality on the times in which they live, communicate evil as well as good; but Cranch had no desire to influence his fellow men, and for this reason his influence was of a purer quality. It was like the art of Albert Durer. No one could conceive of Cranch's injuring anybody; and if all men were like him there would be no more wars, no need of revolutions. Force, however, is necessary to combat the evil that is already established. He died at his house on Ellery Street January 20, 1890, as gently and peacefully as he had lived. There is an excellent portrait of him by Duveneck in the rooms of the University Club, at Boston; but the sketch of his life, by George William Curtis, was refused on the ground
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 4, Chapter 48: Seward.—emancipation.—peace with France.—letters of marque and reprisal.—foreign mediation.—action on certain military appointments.—personal relations with foreigners at Washington.—letters to Bright, Cobden, and the Duchess of Argyll.—English opinion on the Civil War.—Earl Russell and Gladstone.—foreign relations.—1862-1863. (search)
ithout a prize court. That folly shows that there is more work to be done. We are all agreed against that. Here is the first great offence; Evarts puts this as No. 1. To take back this bloody folly will be bad for your Cabinet; but sooner or later, in some way or other, it must be done. To R. Schleiden, September 14:— Truly, Germany united would be a great power, with a great history; with an early romance and Heldenbuch, with Minnesingers and Reinecke Fuchs, with Luther and Albert Durer, and then with Goethe and Schiller. I should like to see it a plural unit. Such a people—so numerous, so educated, so strong if united—must make a powerful and irresistible nation. If I were a German I should strive for this unity; therefore I enter into your solicitudes. But where does it all tend? Will unity be accomplished? And, still further, will it be a true, liberal, and just unity, not the compression of superior force? Again, November 2:— I enjoyed last evening t
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Harvard Memorial Biographies, 1854. (search)
and settled down in Munich for life? No, I have left, and, what's more, I have seen Nuremberg! I don't think I can make an attempt at description. It has given me more pleasure than all that I had seen before. It is all old; it is all rich; it is all history; it is all carving,— carving in brown stone of every pattern and figure. No fish, flesh, or fowl that is not carved there. And then those old fellows, who, so to speak, left their lives everywhere about their dear old city,—Albert Durer, Adam Kraft, Veit Stoss, and Peter Vischer too. And yet the Bavarian court resides at Munich, a city on a perfect flat, no beauty in the houses, and the worst climate in the world. It had been his intention to spend another studious winter in Berlin; but the damp and chilly climate proved so unfavorable to his health, that he was compelled to retreat to Italy, where he enjoyed himself to the utmost. In no city have I enjoyed so much as in Rome, he writes April 1, 1856, and the partin
George Ticknor, Life, letters and journals of George Ticknor (ed. George Hillard), Chapter 2: (search)
luxury or comfort of such an establishment, when arranged on the grandest scale. We dined with the Prelate, and after dinner were carried through a long series of rooms—covered with pictures, generally poor, and engravings, some of which, by Albert Durer, were very curious—to his saloon, where we had coffee. . . . . When this was over, we were carried to the observatory, a heavy, imposing building, erected on the solid rock, nine stories, and nearly two hundred feet high; . . . . the upper owing trees, and directly in front of the waterfall. . . . . At St. Wolfgang, Mr. Ticknor says, In the court of the church we saw something really interesting, a very beautiful and graceful fountain, cast in lead, with admirable designs by Albert Durer, of whose authenticity I did not doubt, both on account of their beauty, and because his initials and the date, 1515, were cast with the work. After three days at Salzburg, on whose various beauties, interests, and antiquities Mr. Ticknor d
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 35. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), The battle of New Market, Va., again, (search)
y any obstructions in the dash on the redoubt. On the right of this squad stood Charles Haigh, a stalwart young soldier, now Major Charles Haigh, a gallant ex-Confederate officer, and one of the prominent business men of Fayetteville. Dark night was now upon us; but here and there through the openings of the trees the dim light showed, towering through the gloom and stalking on behind us gigantic centaurs of the days of mythology, as weird and terrible as the famous mysterious horse of Albert Durer. They were the teams and drivers brought along to carry away the captured guns, and they must have been harnessed in cotton or velvet and shod with straw, for they came on as noiselessly as the spectres of a dream. And now, under thick darkness, headed by our morning guide, Lieutenant Goode, we broke our way through bush and briar, splashed water, stole quickly across some open patch of ground, descended into a steep gully, then climbed a hill, and the redoubt was right in front of us
or copy of Chapter V of Fields and Mansions of Middlesex. (S. A. Drake, 1874.) Referring our readers to the above book we will only quote:— Except that the sides of the edifice are somewhat bulged out, which gives it a portly, aldermanic appearance, and that it shows a few fissures in its outward crust, the Powder House is good for another century if for a day. Nothing is wanting but its long arms, for the Old Mill to have stepped bodily out of a canvas of Rembrandt or a cartoon of Albert Durer. It carries us in imagination beyond seas to the banks of the Scheldt,—to the land of burgomasters, dikes and guilders. It was left to us to find in another quarter the legend. In an occasional paper styled the Old Powder House, printed for a church fair in 1878, was A Legend of the Old Mill, by Mrs. L. B. Pillsbury,—in all thirty-two verses. That writer (unlike the former one) had the grace to append a footnote, thus:— Suggested by the facts given in Drake's Fields and Mans