ief magistrate was not the ealdorman of early English history, but the rex or basileus who combined in himself the functions of king, general, and priest.
Thus, too, there was a severance, politically, between city and country such as the Teutonic world has never known.
The rural districts surrounding a city might be subject to it, but could neither share its franchise nor claim a co-ordinate franchise with it. Athens, indeed, at an early period, went so far as to incorporate with itself Eleusis and Marathon and the other rural towns of Attica.
In this one respect Athens transgressed the bounds of ancient civic organization, and no doubt it gained greatly in power thereby.
But generally in the Hellenic world the rural population in the neighborhood of a great city were mere peri/oikoi, or dwellers in the vicinity ; the inhabitants of the city who had moved thither from some other city, both they and their descendants, were mere me/toikoi, or dwellers in the place ; and neither th