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rliament, boasts of her success in securing to Englishmen a new market for slaves in Spanish America. In 1729, George II. recommended a provision, at the national expense, for the African forts; and the recommendation was followed. At last, in 1749, to give the highest activity to the trade, every obstruction to private enterprise was removed, and the ports of Africa were laid open to English competition; for the slave trade—such are the words of the statute—the slave trade is very ad- 23 Geo. II. c. XXXI. vantageous to Great Britain.—The British senate, wrote one of its members, in February, 1750, have this fortnight been pondering methods to make more Horace Walpole to Sir H. Mann, II. 438. 1750 Feb. 25. effectual that horrid traffic of selling negroes. It has appeared to us that six-and-forty thousand of these wretches are sold every year to our plantations alone. But, while the partial monopoly of the African company was broken down, and the commerce in men was opened to<
an American episcopate, which Bedford and Halifax both favored as essential chap. II.} 1748. Nov. to royal authority, Virginia, with the consent of Gooch, its lieutenant-governor, transferred by law Hening's Statutes at large, VI. 90. XXII. Geo. II., chap. XXXIV. § 7. the patronage of all the livings to the vestries. The act was included among the revised laws, and met with the king's approbation. Dinwiddie to the Earl of Holdernesse, 5 June, 1753. But from the time that its purpose the Duke of chap. II.} 1749. Cumberland, Pelham, and Henry Fox assisted in maturing, devolved on Halifax. Invitations went through Europe to invite Protestants from the continent to emigrate to the British colonies. The Moravian brethren 22 Geo. II., c. XXX. were attracted by the promise of exemption from oaths and military service. The goodwill of New England was encouraged by care for its fisheries; and American whalemen, stimulated by the promise of enjoying an equal bounty 22 Geo
dependence, nor compete in their industry with British workshops, nor leave their employers the entire security that might prepare a revolt, liberty to trade 23 Geo. II. c. XXXI. § 1.—saddest concession of freedom—to and from chap. III.} 1750. any part of Africa, between Sallee, in South Barbary, and the Cape of Good Hope, waee, on which Horatio Walpole, senior, and Robert Nugent, afterwards Lord Clare,—a man of talents, yet not free from bombast and absurdities, Walpole's Memoirs of Geo. II., i, 171, and Letters.—were among the associates. After a few days' deliberation, he brought in a bill which permitted American iron, in its rudest forms, to bclause failed only by a majority of twenty-two. But an immediate return was required of every mill already existing, and the number was never to be increased 23 Geo. II., c. XXIX. There was no hope that this prohibition would ever be repealed. Thomas Penn to James Hamilton, 1 May, 1750. England did not know the indigna
l right to make use of its credit for its defence and preservation. Compare Lind on Acts relating to the Colonies, 238. New York also urged the benefit of a paper credit. Before the bill was engrossed, the obnoxious clause was abandoned. 24 Geo. II. c. LIII. Yet there seemed to exist in the minds of some persons of consequence, a fixed design of getting a parliamentary sanction of some kind or other to the king's instructions; and the scheme was conducted with great perseverance and art accepting a ransom, restored him to his country. Men of less presence of mind often fell victims to the fury of the Indian allies of France. At the same time, the Ohio Company, with the express sanction Laws of Virginia, February, 1752. 25 Geo. II., c. 25. Report of Lewis and Walker to Lord Botetourt, 2 February, 1769. of the Legislature of Virginia, were forming a settlement beyond the mountains. Gist had, on a second tour, explored the lands southeast of the Ohio, as far as the Kenh
of military renown, hiding regrets at failure under the aspect of indifference. Waldegrave's Memoirs, 21-23. Himself obedient to the king, he never forgave a transgression of the minutest precept of the military rubric. Walpole's Memoires of Geo. II., i., 86. In Scotland, in 1746, his method against rebellion was threatening military execution. Our success, he at that time complained to Bedford, has been too rapid. It would have been better for the extirpation of this rabble, if they herican major-general and commanderin-chief, Edward Braddock was selected, a man in fortunes desperate, in manners brutal, in temper despotic; obstinate and intrepid; expert in the niceties of a review; harsh in discipline. Walpole's Memoires of Geo. II., i., 390, confirmed by many letters of Washington, the younger Shirley, and others. As the duke had confidence only in regular troops, it was ordered Orders for governing his Majesty's Forces in America, in Two Letters to a Friend, 1755, p
Dunkirk, a vessel of sixty guns, commanded by Howe. Are we at peace or war? asked Hocquart. The French affirm, that the answer to them was, Peace, Peace; till Boscawen gave the signal to engage. Precis des Faits, 278. Walpole's Memoires of Geo. II., i., 889. Barrow's Life of Howe. Howe, who was as brave as he was taciturn, obeyed the order promptly; and the Alcide and Lys yielded to superior force. The Dauphin, being a good sailer, scud safely for Louisburg. Nine more of the French treated leave to return home and consult the body of their people. The next day, the unhappy men, foreseeing the sorrows that menaced them, offered to swear allegiance unconditionally; but they were told that by a clause in a British statute Geo. II. c. XIII. persons who have once refused the oaths cannot be afterwards permitted to take them, but are to be considered as Popish Recusants; and as such they were imprisoned. The Chief Justice, on whose opinion hung the fate of so many hun
of a second lieutenant. Records at Hartford for 29 Geo. II. Putnam's commission as 2nd Lieut. in the 6th co and the reciprocal duties of kings. Louis XV. to Geo. II., 21 October, 1755. The wound inflicted on Franceone power established there. Walpole's Memoires of Geo. II., II., 8. The militia law of Pennsylvania, he saie schemes of finance; and the British statutes, 29 Geo. II., c. XXVI.; 31 Geo. II., c. XXXVI., § 8; 1 Geo. IGeo. II., c. XXXVI., § 8; 1 Geo. III., c. IV. which manifest the settled purpose Letter of Bollan to Massachusetts, in May, 1756. of raising aGeo. III., c. IV. which manifest the settled purpose Letter of Bollan to Massachusetts, in May, 1756. of raising a revenue out of the traffic between the American continent and the West India Islands, show that the execution rs and officers to enlist a regiment of aliens. 29 Geo. II., c. v. Indented servants might be accepted, and for compensation to the respective assemblies; 29 Geo. II., c. XXXV. and the naval code of England was exteakes, great waters, or rivers of North America. 29 Geo. II., c. XXVII. The militia law of Pennsylvania was r
the future sovereign of England in the theory of the British constitution. Adolphus: Hist. of England, i. 12. On the organization of his household, Prince George desired to have him about his person. The request of the prince, which Pitt advocated, was resisted by Newcastle and by Hardwicke. To embroil the royal family, the latter did not hesitate to blast the reputation of the mother of the heir apparent by tales of scandal, The scandal against the Princess Dowager, the mother of Geo. III., has been often repeated; yet it seems to have sprung from the malicious gossip of a profligate court. Waldegrave, a licentious man, is the chief accuser; Hardwicke, a disappointed politician, in a private letter, points a period with the insinuation. But the princess seems to have been reserved and decorous, as became the aged mother of a large family; and to have had no friendships but with those friends of her husband who were most naturally her counsellors. which party spirit deli
ernors, they are the laws of the land; for the king is the legislator of the colonies. This doctrine which Franklin received soon after his arrival in London, fell on him as new; Franklin to Bowdoin, 13 Jan., 1772. Writings, VII. 549. and was never effaced from his memory. In its preceding session parliament had done little, except in the hope of distressing Canada and the French islands by famine, to lay grievous restrictions on the export of provisions from the British colonies. 30 Geo. II., c. IX. The act produced a remonstrance. America, said Granville, the Lord President, to the complaint of its agents, America must not do any thing to interfere with Great Britain in the European markets. If we plant and reap, and must not ship, retorted Franklin, your Lordship should apply to parliament for transports to bring us all back again. But in America the summer passed as might have been expected from detachments under commanders whom a child might outwit or terrify with a
nth of September, before the English had constructed batteries, De Ramsay capitulated. America rung with exultation; the towns were bright with illuminations, the hills with bonfires; legislatures, the pulpit, the press, echoed the general joy; provinces and families gave thanks to God. England, too, which had shared the despondency of Wolfe, triumphed at his victory and wept for his death. Joy, grief, curiosity, amazement, were on every countenance. Walpole's Memoires of the Reign of Geo. II. When the parliament assembled, Pitt modestly and gracefully put aside the praises that were showered on him. The more a man is versed in business, said he, the more he finds the hand of Providence every where. I will own I have a zeal to serve my country beyond what the weakness of my frail body admits of; Report of the speech by Jared Ingersoll of Connecticut, in a letter dated 22 December, 1759. and he foretold new successes at sea. November fulfilled his predictions. In that mont
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