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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 47 1 Browse Search
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ic or tension electricity of the atmosphere harmlessly to the earth. It consists of a wire, rod, or slip of metal from the top of a house, tower, steeple, or mast, to the ground, or, better still, a ground-plate or system of buried iron pipes. Gray and Wheler, in 1720-1736, made experiments to ascertain the distance through which electric force could be transmitted, using insulated metals. Gray, in 1729, discovered the properties of electric conductors. He found that the attraction and rGray, in 1729, discovered the properties of electric conductors. He found that the attraction and repulsion which appear in electric bodies are exhibited also by other bodies in contact with the electric. —Whewell. Dr. Watson, in 1747, passed transmitted electricity through 2,800 feet of wire and 8,000 feet of water, using the earth circuit. Benjamin Franklin, in 1748, performed his experiments on the banks of the Schuylkill, concluded by a picnic, when spirits were fired by an electric spark sent through the river, and a turkey was killed by the electric shock, and roasted by the el
nication with an electrical machine, was surprised at receiving a severe shock; a similar event had happened the year previous to Von Kleinst, a German prelate. Gray in 1729 discovered that certain substances were possessed of a conductive in contradistinction to an electric power; and afterwards Nollet passed a shock through aicially excited electricity. Newton saw the first traces of an electric charge in 1675, in some experiment with a rubbed plate of glass. Although Wall in 1708, Gray in 1734, and Nollet, conjectured the identity of frictional electricity and lightning, yet Franklin was the first to attain the experimental certainty by his well-cited by frictional electricity is — or rather was — used to convey messages by sparks or shocks. For notices of early observations, see electrical apparatus. Gray, in 1729, experimented with conductors; Nollet soon afterwards sent a shock along a line of men and wires 900 toises in length; Watson, the learned Bishop of Lland
d TylerApr. 6, 1869. 103,694F. WessonMay 31, 1870. 106,083Simpson, Gray, and RomansAug. 2, 1870. 112,803Gray and RomansMar. 21, 1871. cGray and RomansMar. 21, 1871. class B. — breech-block moving with relation to barrel. 1. Sliding Longitudinally Backward. (a.) Operated by a Lever. No.Name.Date. 747 ApplebyDec. 20, 1864. 46,977D. WilliamsonMar. 21, 1865. 48,337Joshua GrayJune 20, 1865. 49,463W. F. Wilson and H. FlatherAug. 15, 1865. on and SimpsonMar. 13, 1866. 53,543J. RiderMar. 27, 1866. *54,068J. GrayApr. 17, 1866. 2. (c.) Hinged beneath Barrel, etc.—ContinueW. H. RiceMay 19, 1863. 41,343Mix and HortonJan. 9, 1864. *41,375J. GrayJan. 26, 1864. 42,139C. B. HoldenMar. 29, 1864. 42,685C. F. PayneMay 10, 1864. 42,743L. N. ChapinMay 17, 1864. *44,995J. GrayNov. 8, 1864. *45,105R. WilsonNov. 15, 1864. *45,560J. GrayDec. 20, 1864. *4J. GrayDec. 20, 1864. *45,919W. FitzgeraldJan. 17, 1865. 49,583L. W. BroadwellAug. 22, 1865. 51,243W. TibbalsNov. 28, 1865. 51,258J. DavisNov. 28, 1865. 54,744J.
to bring the needle into coincidence with the meridian at each of the other cardinal points indicated by the cross lines on the deck, and its correctness at each of the four rhumb points, N. E., N. W., S. W., S. E., is assured in like manner, using the boxes of chain before mentioned to correct the deviation of the needle. When these adjustments are made the compass should be sufficiently correct for all practical purposes. The deviations, if any, may be ascertained by swinging the ship. Gray's apparatus for adjusting compasses is based on the foregoing method of Professor Airey. The regulating magnets are caused to approach or recede from the compass by screws, so as to admit of very accurate adjustment. Great care must be taken that the magnets are brought, by turning the ship at right angles, to the magnetic meridian before moving them, in order to regulate the compass. Marine steam-boiler. Ma-rine′ steam-boil′er. Marine steam-boilers are composed of an external s
by means of an electrotype die taken from the fabric itself, an exact imitation of the warp and woof of the fabric, and also of the stitches which constituted its embroidered pattern. This ornamented surface is produced upon all paper collars now in the market. Lockwood also printed fanciful designs on the face of collars, in imitation of calico fabrics. In 1863, the button-holes, which had formerly been simply punctured, were reinforced by cloth patches by an English maker. In 1863, Gray of Boston rolled a garrote collar from a single piece of paper, so as to make the standing lappel flare from the neck. He also turned a Byron collar upon a defined curved line, so that the outer portion would have the larger curve, and to avoid puckering the material, and also to provide for the neck-tie. Evan, in the same year, improved the paper for collars by constructing it of long-fibered stock. Lang, in 1866, made paper collars and cuffs in imitation of lace. In the same year
. The pan has a perforated false bottom, and in the space between the bottom and false bottom is arranged a rotary stirrer. Above the false bottom is a hollow rotary shaft provided with arms. The pan has a tight cover, to which are suspended two plates, the upper one being provided with gutters. The interior of the pan communicates with a condenser which is connected with a drain or sewer. The vapors are condensed by means of cold water supplied by perforated boxes. Rendering-pan. Gray's apparatus (Fig. 4259) consists of a closed tank or kettle A having a jacket covering the part which comes in contact with the fire. The space contains water, which is heated so as to render the lard in the kettle. The vapors and gases which escape from the lard during the process of rendering are carried through a coil L in a condenser, and afterward through a gas-purifier, or they may be conducted into the furnace and burner. A gage H indicates the amount of steam-pressure; try-cocks at
onNov. 25, 1856. 16,387JohnsonJan. 13, 1857. 16,566GrayFeb. 3, 1857. 17,508HarrisJune 9, 1857. 17,571HarrikFeb. 23, 1858. 19,660HendrickMar. 16, 1858. 19,532GrayMar. 2, 1858. 19,665GrayMar. 16, 1858. 20,413DimockGrayMar. 16, 1858. 20,413DimockJune 1, 1858. 20,742ThomsonJune 29, 1858. 21,015MooreJuly 27, 1858. 1. (b.) Reciprocating Loop-Taker. (c1858. (Reissue.)706StedmanApr. 26, 1859. 24,022Gray et al.May 17, 1859. 24.629GroutJuly 5, 1859. 25,00erSept. 22, 1868. 88,499McLeanMar. 30, 1869. 95,581GrayOct. 5, 1869. 102,586PeabodyMay. 3, 1870. 105,961Meb. 20, 1872. 123,995JohnstonFeb. 27, 1872. 124,894Gray et al.Mar. 26, 1872. 125,230ToofApr. 2, 1872. 125,neMar. 4, 1873. 8. Chairs. No.Name.Date. 140,362GrayJuly 1, 1873. 9. Casters. 42,754DodgeMay 17, 1864. latter an exterior nut which covers the joint. p. Gray. Two or more pawls within a sleeve are, by means ofhill. It was originally invented by a Scotchman, a Mr. Gray, and was improved by Smith of Deanston and by Wil