ng scenes at Brooklyn, when hosts of citizens went over from New York to assist in strengthening the old fortifications there, in expectation of an attack by the British.
In the Civil War the citizens of Brooklyn contributed largely to the support of the Union cause in every way. The fair held here for the benefit of the United States Sanitary Commission yielded the sum of $402,943. Brooklyn was incorporated a village in April, 1816, and became a chartered city in 1834.
Williamsburg and (Greenpoint were annexed to it in 1855; the towns of Flatbush, New Utrecht, and Gravesend, in 1894; and the town of Flatlands became a ward of the city in 1896.
The bridge across the East River, connecting New York and Brooklyn, was designed by John A. Roebling (q. v.). It was begun in 1870 and finished in 1883.
The steel cables by which it is suspended were made at Wilmington, Del..
and are supported on stone piers, 272 feet above high tide.
The total length of the bridge is 5,989 feet. and the
She had gone down to Hampton Roads and destroyed (March 8, 1862) the wooden
Map of Hampton Roads. sailing frigates Congress and Cumberland, at the mouth of the James River, and it was expected she would annihilate other ships there the next morning.
Anxiously the army and navy officers of that vicinity passed the night of the 8th, for there appeared no competent human agency near to avert the threatened disaster.
Meanwhile another vessel of novel form and aspect had been constructed at Greenpoint, L. I., under the direction of the eminent engineer, Capt. John Ericsson (q. v.). It was a dwarf in appearance by the side of the Merrimac.
It presented to the eye, when afloat, a simple platform, sharp at both ends, and bearing in its centre a round Martello tower 20 feet in diameter and 10 feet in height, made, as
Interior of the monitor's turret. was the rest of the vessel, of heavy iron.
It presented a bomb-proof fort, in which were mounted two 11-inch Dahlgren guns.
The hull of