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Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.), Advertisement (search)
irst to attempt that demonstration, which others improved ten years after me, without, however, it being yet complete. Those who would deny this truth would not be candid. As for the rest, I have never soiled my pen by attacking personally studious men who devote themselves to science, and if I have not shared their dogmas, I have expressed as much with moderation and impartiality: it were to be desired that it should ever be thus. Let us return to our subject. The artillery, since Gribeauval and d'urtubie has had its Aide-Memoire, and a mass of particular works, in the number of which are distinguished those of Decker, Paixhans, Dedon, Hoyer, Ravichio and Bouvroy. The discussions of several authors, among others those of the Marquis de Chambray and of General Okounieff upon the fire of infantry. Finally, the dissertations of a host of officers, recorded in the interesting military journals of Vienna, of Berlin, of Munich, of Stutgard and of Paris, have contributed also to th
sition of the Government was to accept all bodies which volunteered for a particular branch of the service, and this did not tend to due proportions between the different branches. Outside of a limited number of smooth-bore guns in possession of certain volunteer associations, the Government had no equipment of field-artillery to start with. What was found in the arsenals in the Southern States which fell into the hands of the Confederate Government, consisted of old iron guns mounted on Gribeauval carriages, manufactured about 1812, but there was not a single serviceable field-battery in any arsenal. The few guns belonging to the different States were short of harness, saddles, and other equipment. Not a gun or guncarriage, and, except during the Mexican War, not a round of ammunition had been prepared in any of the Confederate States for fifty years. When hostilities began, the only foundry for casting cannon was at the Tredegar works in Richmond, and with the exception of a ba
a relic of the war with Mexico. It is doubtful if there were a million of rounds of small-arms cartridges. The chief store of powder was that captured at Norfolk; there was, besides, a small quantity at each of the Southern arsenals, in all sixty thousand pounds, chiefly old cannon powder. The percussion caps did not exceed one quarter of a million, and there was no lead on hand. There were no batteries of serviceable field artillery at the arsenals, but a few old iron guns mounted on Gribeauval carriages fabricated about 1812. The states and the volunteer companies did, however, possess some serviceable batteries. But there were neither harness, saddles, bridles, blankets, nor other artillery or cavalry equipments. To furnish one hundred fifty thousand men, on both sides of the Mississippi, in May, 1861, there were no infantry accoutrements, no cavalry arms or equipment, no artillery, and above all, no ammunition; nothing save arms, and these almost wholly the old pattern sm
pplicable to the fitting together parts which are made strictly to fixed shapes and dimensions so as to be promiscuously interchangeable. The system of interchangeability of parts was first introduced into the French Artillery service by General Gribeauval, about the year 1765. Previous to this time each part of a gun-carriage was made specially for that carriage alone, and could not be used for repairing any other, unless after extensive alterations. Gribeauval simplified the system, or Gribeauval simplified the system, or rather want of system, then in vogue, by reducing the carriages into classes, and so arranging many of the parts that they could be applied indiscriminately to all carriages of the class for which they were made. This system was farther simplified and extended, and was finally applied in the United States arsenals and armories to all articles made up of pieces, the improvements in machinery enabling most articles to be made accurately to pattern without depending on the eye and hand of the work
vice. It may or may not be adapted for the transportation of the piece. The first consisted merely of a timber-block, or frame, to which the cannon was secured by straps or bolts. Uprights, with holes for pegs, were sometimes employed to give elevation to the muzzle. Afterwards a species of trough, having a butt-piece and mounted on wheels, was introduced (A, Fig. 2339). Subsequent improvements brought them nearly to the form B, which represents a carriage of the Gribeauval pattern. Gribeauval, a French artillery officer, made great improvements, 1765, in gun-carriages and the organization of artillery, reducing the size of the parts, and making the similar parts, for those of the same class, interchangeable; he also added a tongue, so that two horses could draw abreast, and made the limbers so that one sort would answer for several different kinds of carriages. Land gun-carriages comprise field, siege, casemate, and barbette carriages. The two former are adapted for the tra
only during the last 25 years that they have filled any notable place in the world. It was then only by a combination of talents that either of these three important inventions was enabled to achieve any remarkable success. The sewing-machine previous to 1851, made without the admirable division of labor which is a feature in all well-conducted factories, was hard to make, and comparatively hard to run. The system of assembling — first introduced in the artillery service of France by General Gribeauval in 1765, and brought to proximate perfection by Colonel Colt in the manufacture of his revolver at Hartford, Connecticut — has economized material and time, and improved the quality as well as cheapened the product. There is to-day, and in fact has been for some years, more actual invention in the special machines for making sewing-machines than in the machines themselves. The effect of this will be, when the adventitious aids of exclusive patents shall terminate, to give the large
181. Greer, E., X., 313. Greer, H. I., VIII., 117. Greer, R, W., VIII., 117. Gregg, D. McM.: III., 324, 328, 330, 332, 338, 340, 342; IV., 24; with staff, 29, 32, 41, 53, 84, 86, 128, 203, 224, 226, 230, 234, 236, 237, 240, 246, 247, 262; V., :37; X., 95. Gregg, J.: II., 288, 334; V., 157. Gregg, M., X., 151. Gregg Battery, Cumming's Point, S. C., II., 333. Gregg, Fort, Va. (see also Fort Gregg, Va.), I., 309. Gresham, W. Q., X., 203. Gribeauval carriages V., 56. Grier, Judge Vii., 29. 36. Grierson, B. H.: H., 205, :332; III., 324, 326; IV., 34, 116, 130; at Baton Rouze, La., IV., 131 seq.; and staff, IV., 133 seq., 134, 137, 241, 262. Griffin, C.: I., 107, 159, 162: II., 81, 324; III., 287, 336, 344; field batteries, V., 18 seq., 20 seq.; with staff, V., 21; IX., 266; X., 200. Griffin, S. G., X., 219. Griffin, Ga., VII., 266. Griffith, J., V., 65. Griffith, R., H., 328; X., 149. Gri