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oil, of which much had been redeemed by industry, and driven by the stern necessity of a dense population to seek for resources upon the sea. The most gifted of her sons, who first gave expression to the idea, that free ships make free goods, Grotius, Epist. CCVII.; aliorum bella obstare commerciorum libertati non debere. defended the liberty of commerce, and appealed to the judgment of all free governments and nations against the maritime restrictions, which humanity denounced as Chap VIes of the commercial greatness of Holland were forgotten in envy at her success. She ceased to appear as the antagonist of Spain, and the gallant champion of the freedom of the seas; she was now envied as the successful rival. The eloquence of Grotius was neglected, as well as the pretensions of Spain disregarded; and the English government resolved to protect the English merchant. Cromwell desired to confirm the maritime power of his country; and St. John, a Puritan and a republican in theo
usetts left all in peace but the noisy brawlers, and left to them the opportunity of escape. For four centuries, Europe had maintained that heresy should be punished by death. In Spain, more persons have been burned for their opinions, than Massachusetts then contained inhabitants. Under Charles V., in the Netherlands alone, the number of those who were hanged, beheaded, buried alive, or burned, for religious opinion, was fifty thousand, says father Paul; the whole carnage amounted, says Grotius, Sarpi, Istoria del Concil. Trid. L. v. Opere, v. II. p. 33. E contutto, che il numero nea Paesi Bassi tra impiccati, decapitati, sepolti vivi, ed abbruciati aggiugnesse a cinquantamila. Annales, p. 12, ed. 1678. Carnificata hominum non minus centum millia. to not less than one hundred thousand. America was guilty of the death of four individuals; and they fell victims rather to the contest of will, than to the opinion that Chap. X.} 1659. Sept. Quakerism was a capital crime. Of