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imprisoned body of air subjected to pressure. The illustration shows one form of apparatus in which the brake-lever D may be brought into contact with some moving wheel of the machine to be regulated. The pressure of the air in the cylinder A upon the piston C is the measure of the power brought upon the brake D. This pressure may be decreased by allowing air to escape through the stop-cock F, or increased by the action of the valved piston B, b′. Atmospheric governor. At-mos-pher′ic Ham′mer. A power-hammer driven by the force of compressed air. In some cases the air is employed merely to lift the hammer; in other cases air is also employed as an adjunct in the effective stroke. In the latter case the operation is much like that of the steam-hammer, the main difference being in the substitution of air for steam. In Hague's English patent some forty years since, an atmospheric hammer is shown, in which the helve is raised by the pressure of the atmosphere beneath a <
in the respective families, and guaranteed to the holders all the accommodations and offices of friendship when visiting at the house of the holder of the other portion. Plautus refers to the custom. See Adam Clark in his comments on this passage, and the authors referred to by him. Secret voting was practiced by the ancient Greeks and modern Venetians, from the latter of whom we derive the term ballot. A tract, The benefit of the ballot, was published by Marvell in 1693. Ball-peen Ham′mer. A metal-worker's hammer with a spherical peen. Ball-screws. Ball-screw. An implement for extracting bullets from the barrel of a gun in cases where it would be dangerous or impossible to expel them by firing. It is screwed on to the end of the ramrod, which, being turned, causes the screwthreaded pointed end of the ball-screw to enter the bullet, which is then withdrawn by pulling the ramrod. The common form is shown at a, Fig. 549. Witzleben's ball-screw, b, has two ja
ed. The axis of the cylinder, at the hour when one is desirous of being wakened, pushes down a small crank, which, by letting fall a weight, puts the alarm in motion. A dial-plate with a handle is also placed within the frame. Clock-move′ment Ham′mer. The striker of a clock which sounds the hours upon the bell or gong. Clock-pil′lar. One of the posts which connect, and at the same time hold at the prescribed distance apart, the plates of a clock movement. Clock-spring. A coidistinct on the back. 4. (Sewing-machine.) An attachment which makes a mark in a line parallel with the work in hand, to indicate the place for the next seam or tuck. Creas′ing. A layer of tiles forming a corona for a wall. Creas′ing Ham′mer. A narrow, rounded-edge hammer, used for making grooves in sheet-metal. Creaze. (Mining.) The tin in the middle part of the buddle. Creel. 1. (Spinning.) The bar which holds the paying-off bobbins in the bobbin-and-fl
ead of a lathe. Dead-steam. Steam destitute of energy, inactive from want of heat, from having attained its ultimate expansion, or from being so placed as to have no effective value in any given case. Dead-stroke hammer. Dead-stroke Ham′mer. A power-hammer which delivers its blow without being affected by the recoil of the shaft on which the ram or hammer is stocked. The frame A has a crank-wheel C connected by a rod D to the spring E, from which the hammer is suspended. Theps.Narrow-beak forceps. Curved forceps.Cow-horn forceps. Bayonet-shape forceps.Fulcrum forceps. Hawk's-bill forceps.Screw forceps. By the kind of duty: — Excising forceps.Nipping forceps. Separating forceps.Plugging forceps. Den′tal Ham′mer. An instrument for plugging teeth; operated by the alternate pressure and relaxation of pressure of the stock upon the point. The plugging-tool presses against the filling in the tooth; pressure on the case makes the tool-stock recede, im
forming a straight middle body. Flat′band. A plain, square impost. Flat-boat. A barge for transporting produce on the Western rivers. A flat; an ark. Flat-cap. A size of writing-paper usually 14 × 17 inches. Flat Chis′el. A sculptor's chisel for smoothing surfaces. Flat file. A file wider than its thickness and of rectangular section. When bellied, it is known as a taper file; when the size is maintained from end to end, it is known as a parallel file. Flat Ham′mer. The hammer first used by the gold-beater in swaging out a pile of quartiers, or pieces of gold ribbon, 1 × 1 1/2 inches square. These are placed 24 in a pile and beaten till they are two inches square. They are then packaged with interleaves of vellum and beaten by other hammers, known as the commencing, spreading, and finishing hammers. Flat-head nail. A forged nail with a round, flat head and a light, rounded, pointed body. Flat-i′ron. An iron with a flat face, u
n inch. See amalgamator ; gold-leaf. Gold-al-loys′. Those in which other metals are added to gold to confer hardness, as in coin, or to cheapen the product, as in some jewelers' alloys and solders. See alloys, pp. 62, 63. Gold-beat′ers Ham′mer. A hammer with two somewhat rounded faces, used in beating the pack of alternate gold ribbon and vellum or gold-leaf and skin. As the work progresses smaller hammers are used. The forging-hammer is used in reducing the ingot of gold to anvil at the base of the cartridge; a pellet or ring in a basin or in the flange of the cartridge; a pellet in the base of the bullet. By position it may be rear-fire, front-fire, side-fire, center-fire. See. cartridge; fire-arm. Gun-look Ham′mer. The cock or striker of a fire-arm lock. See gun-lock. Gun-met′al. A bronze from which cannon may be cast. Ordinarily 9 parts copper and 1 tin. Other metals have been sometimes added or substituted for the tin, copper still rema
shaving off very thin slices of ham or beef. Ham′mer. 1. A tool for driving nails, beating metructure, usually partially span the severy. Ham′mer-cap. A cover for the cock of a gun. HHam′mer-catcher. (Music.) A padded shoulder which catches the hammer on its return. See piano-tc., in the box of the seat; or from hamper. Ham′mer-harden-ing. Beating metal with a hammer h has projecting trunnions forming the axis. Ham′mer-joint. The joint of the pan in the flint-lock. Ham′mer-mark. A forge-mark. A mark of the hammer left from forging. Ham′mer-nail. to the plate of the gun-lock. A lock-nail. Ham′mer-spring. The spring of the hammer in a gul up to allow a clear passage between decks. Ham′mock-net-tings. (Nautical.) A row of forkee seamen stow their hammocks during the day. Ham′per. 1. A large wicker-work covered basket, esist the action of sea-water. Hold′ing — up Ham′mer. A hammer held by the assistant against
g must be tuned to a different octave. A kind of glockenspeil. Steel-bar piano. Pi-a′no-for′te Ac′tion. The motion-work of a piano-forte, including the key and hammer and the parts intervening. See Figs. 3687 and 3688. Pi-a′no-for′te Ham′mer. The percussor in the piano movement which is impelled by the key and strikes the string. Piano-hammer. Pi-a′no-graph. An apparatus attached to a piano, which transcribes on prepared paper the piece played on the piano. Pi-a′e agent for lifting. See pneumatic hoist; furnace-hoist. In planing-mills, the pneumatic method is used to carry the shavings from the planers to the furnaces of the steam-boilers; in grain and wool houses, to convey the stock. Pneu-mat′ic Ham′mer. A hammer in which compressed air is the agent for lifting the helve or the head. See atmospheric hammer. Pneumatic hoist. Pneu-mat′ic hoist. An elevating apparatus in which a platform is lifted by suspension chains