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for which it was founded, those very objections which in the beginning had been answered, abandoned, and thrown aside, were brought to light again, and presented to the country as expositions of the true meaning of the Constitution. Webster, one of the first to revive some of those early misconceptions so long ago refuted as to be almost forgotten, and to breathe into them such renewed vitality as his commanding genius could impart, in the course of his well-known debate in the Senate with Hayne in 1830, said: It can not be shown that the Constitution is a compact between State governments. The Constitution itself, in its very front, refutes that proposition: it declares that it is ordained and established by the people of the United States. So far from saying that it is established by the governments of the several States, it does not even say that it is established by the people of the several States; but it pronounces that it is established by the people of the United State
acceded to it evidence of the Constitution itself and of contemporary records. I have habitually spoken of the federal Constitution as a compact, and of the parties to it as sovereign states. These terms should not, and in earlier times would not, have required explanation or vindication. But they have been called in question by the modern school of consolidation. These gentlemen admit that the government under the Articles of Confederation was a compact. Webster, in his rejoinder to Hayne on January 27, 1830, said: When the gentleman says the Constitution is a compact between the States, he uses language exactly applicable to the old Confederation. He speaks as if he were in Congress before 1789. He describes fully that old state of things then existing. The Confederation was, in strictness, a compact; the States, as States, were parties to it. We had no other General Government. But that was found insufficient and inadequate to the public exigencies. The people were
e history of Fort Sumter during the remaining period, until the organization of the Confederate government, may be found in the correspondence given in the Appendix. Ibid. From this it will be seen that the authorities of South Carolina still continued to refrain from any act of aggression or retaliation, under the provocation of the secret attempt to reenforce the garrison, as they had previously under that of its nocturnal transfer from one fort to another. Another commissioner (the Hon. I. W. Hayne) was sent to Washington by the governor of South Carolina to effect, if possible, an amicable and peaceful transfer of the fort, and settlement of all questions relating to property. This commissioner remained for nearly a month, endeavoring to accomplish the objects of his mission, but was met only by evasive and unsatisfactory answers, and eventually returned without having effected anything. There is one passage in the last letter of Colonel Hayne to the President which present
f the United States within Fort Sumter, the Hon. I. W. Hayne, who will hand you this communication, the State Department of South Carolina to Hon. I. W. Hayne State of South Carolina, Executive Offiletters of Senators of seceding States to Hon. I. W. Hayne Washington City, January 15, 1861. Hon.Hon. Isaac W. Hayne. sir: We are apprised that you visit Washington, as an envoy from the State of Shn Slidell, J. P. Benjamin. letter of Hon. I. W. Hayne in reply to Senators from seceding Statesrofound esteem, Your obedient servant, Isaac W. Hayne, Envoy from the Governor and Council of SW. Hayne Washington, January 23, 1861. Hon. Isaac W. Hayne. Sir: In answer to your letter of th to their respective States. Letter of Hon. I. W. Hayne to Senators of seceding States To the Hon Governor and Council of South Carolina. Mr. Hayne to the President of the United States Washegotiation were terminated by the retirement from Washington of Colonel Hayne on February 8, 1861. [6 more...]
armed force against states, 151. Hamlin, —, 42, 44. Handy, Judge, 287. Hardee, General, 351. Harney, Gen. William S., 356, 357, 361. Agreement with Gen. Price, 358-60. Harpers Ferry, Va. Evacuation, 284-85, 296. Harris, Dr., 327. Gov. of Tennessee, 350. Reply to U. S. call for troops, 354. Harrison, William Henry (governor of Indiana territory). Letters to Congress, 5, 6. Pres. U. S., 52. Hartford Convention, 63-64. Hartstein, Captain, 234. Hayne, Isaac W., 110, 115, 187. Extract of letter to Buchanan, 187-88. Correspondence concerning Fort Sumter, 540-51. Henry, Patrick, 147, 380. Opposition to Constitution, 94, 104, 105, 106, 109. Hicks, Gov. of Maryland, 287, 289. Extract from address stating position of Maryland, 287-88. Proclamation to preserve peace, 288. Final message to state legislature, 292. Higginson, —, 61. Hill, Col. A. P., 298. Col. D. H., 297. Hinks, Charles D., 291. Holmes, General, 319, 3