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Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.), Chapter 1: the policy of war. (search)
war are difficult enough; to display in the first place a mass of forces proportionate to the resistance and to the obstacles which are to be encountered; to calm the popular passions by all the means possible; to use them now and then; to display a great mixture of policy, of mildness and severity, and above all great justice; such are the first elements of success. The examples of Henry IV in the wars of the League, of Marshal Berwick in Catalonia, of Suchet in Aragon and in Valencia, of Hoche in Yendee, are models of different kinds, but which may be employed according to circumstances with the same success. The admirable order and discipline, maintained by the armies of Generals Diebitsch and Paskevitch in the late war, are also models to cite, and contributed not a little to the success of their enterprises. The extraordinary obstacles which a national struggle presents to an army wishing to invade a country, have led some speculative minds to de sire that there might never
Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.), Chapter 5: of different mixed operations, which participate at the same time of strategy and.of tactics. (search)
f Philip II was the only colossal enterprise until that which Napoleon formed against England in 1803. All the other expeditions beyond the sea were partial operations; those of Charles V, and of Sebastian of Portugal, upon the Coast of Africa; several descents, like those of the French upon the United States of America, upon Egypt and St. Domingo; those of the English upon Egypt, Holland, Copenhagen, Antwerp, Philadelphia, all enter into the same category. I do not speak of the project of Hoche against Ireland, for it did not succeed, and it shows all the difficulty of these kinds of enterprises. The large armies which the great States keep up at this day, does not admit of their being attacked by descents of thirty or forty thousand men. We can then only form similar enterprises against secondary States, for it is very difficult to embark a hundred or a hundred and fifty thousand men, with the immense equipment of artillery, munitions, cavalry, &c. Meanwhile, we have been on
Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.), Sketch of the principal maritime expeditions. (search)
he ascendancy in the Antilles and debarked in the United States six thousand French under Rochambeau, who, followed later by another division, contributed in investing the small army of Cornwallis in New York (1781) and in fixing thus the independence of America. France would have triumphed perhaps forever over her implacable rival, if, by the aid of those parades in La Mariche, she had sent ten vessels and seven or eight thousand men more with Governor Suffren into India. The attempt of Hoche against Ireland, with twenty-five thousand men, was dispersed by the winds, and had no other consequences, (1796.) Later, the expedition of Bonaparte, carrying twenty-three thousand men to Egypt, with thirteen ships, seventeen frigates, and four hundred transports, obtained at first successes, soon followed by cruel reverses. It is known that, in the hope of driving him from thence, the Turks debarked at Aborikir to the number of fifteen thousand, and that in spite of the advantage of th
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 7: sea-coast defences..—Brief description of our maritime fortifications, with an Examination of the several Contests that have taken place between ships and forts, including the attack on San Juan d'ulloa, and on St. Jean d'acre (search)
en insurrection, ready to receive the invaders with open arms. A body of ten thousand troops were landed, and clothing, arms, &c., furnished to as many more royalist troops ; but the combined forces failed in their attack upon St. Barbe, and General Hoche, from his intrenchments, with seven thousand men, held in check a body of eighteen thousand, penned up, without defences, in the narrow peninsula. Reinforced by a new debarkation, the allies again attempted to advance, but were soon defeated60, without meeting a single British vessel, although sixty-one ships of the line were then stationed upon the coasts of England and France, and several of these were actually in pursuit. In 1796, when the French attempted to throw the army of Hoche into Ireland, the most strenuous efforts were made by the British navy to intercept the French fleet in its passage. The Channel fleet, of near thirty sail of the line, under Lord Bridport, was stationed at Spithead; Sir Roger Curtis, with a sma
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 12: army organization—Engineers.—Their history, duties, and organization,—with a brief discussion, showing their importance as a part of a modern army organization. (search)
ed it. But Moreau's bridge equipage having been destroyed during this disastrous campaign, his operations the following year were considerably delayed in preparing a new one, and even then he was under the necessity of seizing all private boats that could be found within reach; but the difficulty of collecting and using boats of all sizes and descriptions was so great as entirely to defeat his plan of surprising the enemy on the opposite bank of the river. The necessity of co-operating with Hoche admitted of no further delay, and he was now obliged to force his passage in the open day, and in face of the enemy. Undertaken under such circumstances, the enterprise was extremely sanguinary, and at one time very doubtful ; and had it failed, Moreau's army would have been ruined for the campaign. Napoleon's celebrated passage of the Po, at Placentia, shows plainly how important it is for a general to possess the means of crossing rivers. I felt the importance of hastening the enterpr
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 15: military Education—Military schools of France, Prussia, Austria, Russia, England, &c.—Washington's reasons for establishing the West point Academy.—Rules of appointment and Promotion in foreign Services.—Absurdity and injustice of our own system. (search)
veral years before he entered the army as an officer, he had enjoyed all the advantages afforded by leisure and affluent circumstances; Ney, though poor, received a good preliminary education, and entered a notary's office to study a profession. Hoche was destitute of the advantages of early education, but, anxious to supply this deficiency, he early distinguished himself by his efforts to procure books, and by his extraordinary devotion to military studies. By several years devoted in this way to professional studies and the practical duties of a subordinate grade in the army, Hoche acquired a military knowledge which early distinguished him among the generals of the French Revolution. Soult and Gouvion-Saint-Cyr, being of parents in limited circumstances, had not the advantages of extensive education, but close and diligent application, an ardent ambition, and strong and powerful intellect, combined with long years of service in the practical operations of the field, at length e
The Daily Dispatch: March 13, 1862., [Electronic resource], One hundred and twenty-five Dollars reward. (search)
ommunity, without the advantage of military education. We have at considerable pains compiled a list of the most conspicuous French generals of modern times, with the dates of their promotions in rank. It is a remarkable fact that all of Napoleons great marshals, with one or two exceptions, rose from the ranks, and that probably every one of them was without the advantage of a military education. There were indeed real generals before West Point undertook the manufacture of them. Hoche — a celebrated General of the French Revolution — soldier 1784, General 1795, poisoned in 1797-one of the best Generals of that period. Joubert — Soldier 1789, General 1795; very distinguished; killed at the battle of Novi. Jourdan, Marchal de France — Soldier 1778, General 1789, Marchal 1804. Junot, well known — Soldier in 1792, General 1797. Kellermann — Soldier at 15 years old, 1750; General 1792. Kellermann, (son of the aboge,)--Soldier 1793, General 1797; d
l, that "an army of deer commanded by a lion, was better than an army of lions commanded by a deer." His penetrating eye searched the obscured rank for talent and courage combined, and promoted it rapidly to the highest grade. The essay of young Hoche on the means of penetrating Belgium, attracted his attention. Carnot exclaimed, "Behold a sergeant of infantry, who will make his way; " and in a few months Hoche became Captain, Celonel, General of Brigade, General of Dividen, and General-in-ChHoche became Captain, Celonel, General of Brigade, General of Dividen, and General-in-Chief. The time has come when every personal consideration must yield to advance the means for the securement of Southern liberty. Let us more claims to honor, precedence, or place, founded upon past position or rank under the old Government, be the means of preventing the right man from occupying the right place, whether at the head of a division or as a captain of a company. A man may be able to deliver an eloquent political harangue; yea, be a good stateman, yet have none of the elem
milliards and a half of francs ($1,500,000,000) was issued. The farmers were all ruined by the maximum. Every man was afraid of the paper money, and as fast as he accumulated it passed it to the Government, and took real estate in exchange. In this way half the landed property of the kingdom changed hands. By the time of the overthrow of Robespierre, the currency had fallen so low that General Pichegru commuted his pay, which was nominally 4,000 francs, or $800 a month, for $40; and General Hoche, at the head of an army of 100,000 men, wrote to the Directory to beg that they would send him a horse, for he had none, and could not buy one with the paper money. At last, in 1797, when the public debt had reached fifty millions of francs, or about $10,000,000,000 a decree of national bankruptcy was passed — that is to say, the whole debt was repudiated. We have taken the pains to write this short sketch for the sake of the example. The great mistake of the French financiers con
The Daily Dispatch: May 11, 1864., [Electronic resource], Averill's Raid — Attack at Dublin Depot. (search)
59 a British force, under Commander Boy, blockaded a French fleet in the port of Dunkirk. The French commander, seizing a favorable opportunity, not only escaped from his enemy, but attacked the coast of Scotland, and cruised about till the next year, without meeting a single British vessel, although sixty one British ships of the line were then stationed upon the coasts of England and France. A still more remarkable case occurred in 1796, when the French attempted to throw the army of Hoche into Ireland. The most extraordinary efforts were made by the British naval authorities to intercept the French fleet in its passage. Three fleets were put on guard: one, the Channel fleet, under Lord Bridport, consisting of thirty sail of the line, was stationed close on the British shores; a second, under Curtis, in the Downs; a third, under Colpays, watched the harbor of Brest. Yet the French fleet of forty-four vessels, carrying a land force of twenty- five thousand men, actually pass
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