exposure, and the nature of the foundations.
The more superior class consists of a timber structure strongly braced, founded on piles, filled in with stone, and faced with planking or masonry.
See sea-wall; jetty; breakwater.
The dikes of Holland are the most memorable of their class, and protect from the sea that wonderful land which is so largely below the high-water sealevel.
The dikes in some parts of Holland are thirty feet above the ordinary level of the country, and have sufficietes.
The pumping-engines used in Holland at the Haarlem Mere are vertical double-cylinder condensing-engines, one cylinder within the other, the outer one being annular.
All other drainage enterprises sink into insignificance beside those of Holland.
These great public works, since their commencement in 1440, have gradually extended until they include an area of 223,062 acres drained by mechanical means.
See Weale's Dictionary of terms of art, pp. 277 – 283.
One of the latest, and th