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t shelter for a large contraband traffic with the terra firma So great was the naval success of Holland, that it engrossed the commerce of the European Chap. VI.} nations themselves; English marinewharves; English ship-building was an unprofitable vocation. The freedom and the enterprise of Holland had acquired maritime power, and skill, and wealth, such as the vast monopoly of Spain had never been able to command. The causes of the commercial greatness of Holland were forgotten in envy at her success. She ceased to appear as the antagonist of Spain, and the gallant champion of the f—2. Heeren, i. 156. A naval war soon followed, which Cromwell eager- 1652 ly desired, and Holland as earnestly endeavored to avoid. The spirit of each people was kindled with the highest natiothrough the incompetency or want Chap. VI.} of concert of his agents. It is as the rival of Holland, the successful antagonist of Spain, the protector of English shipping, that Cromwell laid clai
th. 35 Eliz. c. i. Stat. IV. 841—843. Parl. Hist 863. Neal's Puritans, i. 513—515. Neal's New England, i. 60. Holland offered an asylum against the bitter severity of this statute. A religious society, founded by the Independents at Amste whole force of English diplo- Chap. VIII.} 1603. macy, he suggested the propriety of burning an Arminian professor of Holland, whose heresies he refuted in a harmless tract. Once he indulged his vanity in a public discussion, and, when the argumful members of the poor, persecuted flock of Christ, despairing of rest in England, resolved to seek safety in exile. Holland, in its controversy with Spain, had displayed republican virtues, and, in the reformation of its churches, had imitated ing elder of the church, had himself served as a diplomatist in the Low Countries. Thus the emigrants were attracted to Holland, where they heard was freedom of religion for all men. The departure from England was effected with 1607. much suffe
tter Examined, 3. When summoned to ap- Oct. pear before the general court, he avowed his conviction in the presence of the representatives of the state. maintained the rocky strength of his grounds, and declared himself ready to be bound and banished and Chap. IX.} even to die in New England, rather than renounce the opinions which had dawned upon his mind in the clearness of light. At a time when Germany was the battle-field for all Europe in the implacable wars of religion; when even Holland was bleeding with the anger of vengeful factions; when France was still to go through the fearful struggle with bigotry; when England was gasping under the despotism of intolerance almost half a century before William Penn became an American proprietary; and two years before Descartes founded modern philosophy on the method of free reflection,—Roger Williams asserted the great doctrine of intellectual liberty. It became his glory to found a state upon that principle, and to stamp himself u