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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 60 24 Browse Search
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Carlyle's laugh and other surprises 2 0 Browse Search
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 35. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones) 2 0 Browse Search
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e is exhausted, which they showed by an engine on purpose . . . . Above all Mr. Boyle was at the meeting, and above him Mr. Hooke, who is the most, and promises the least, of any man in the world that I ever saw. the air-pump was reinvented by Otto von Guericke of Magdeburg, about A. D. 1650. since then this instrument has been much improved by Hooke, Papin, Hawksbee, and Boyle. Many varieties of structure have been devised, the principle of all being the same. The basis or essential rown-wheel escapement for clocks. It was invented by Clement, a London watchmaker, in 1680. By some it is credited to Dr. Hooke. The anchor has two arms whose bent ends resemble flukes in some degree, and thus give rise to the name. It is suspclearly show that their taste was equal to their skill. Long before the properties of the catenary had been developed by Hooke, it is more than probable that they were known in practice to the old Freemasons who built Henry VII.'s chapel and other
ng of the variations. The wheel barometer has a recurved tube in which the mercury ascends and descends, thereby actuating a float which connects by a cord to the axis of an index-finger, which rotates on a graduated dial. It was contrived by Hooke in 1688, the year that the great Dutchman, William of Orange, came to England. The pendent or marine barometer is suspended on gimbals, which enable it to maintain its verticality during the rolling and pitching motions of a ship, and has a coewhat allied to these are instruments in which a flocculent substance is suspended in a menstruum; the assumption of a milky appearance by the material indicates an excess of moisture in the air, and prognosticates rain. The wheel barometer of Hooke is also a baroscope, as its changes and indications are made visible by means of a float in the mercury, whose counterbalanced suspension-string moves a hand on an indexcircle. Ba-rouche′. (Vehicle.) A four-wheeled carriage, having a fall
Panoramic camera, one in which a picture may be taken upon one flat, including an angle of 90° more or less. Invented by Sutton. See also photographic camera. Cam′e-ra-lu′ci-da. Founded upon the invention of Baptista Porta (1589), by Dr. Hooke, about 1674. Improved by Wollaston, 1805. Phil. Trans., Vol. XXXVIII. p. 741. It consists of a glass prism a b c d, by means of which rays of light are bent by two reflections into a path at right angles to their previous direction. A rayn by Harrison, in 1762, who invented and introduced the compensating pendulum balance, made of two metals. See balance; chronometer. The balance-spring, which confers upon the balance the isochronal qualities of the pendulum, was invented by Hooke, who applied it in a straight form. Huyghens changed it to a helix. Graham invented the dead-beat escapement in 1700. See escapement. The spring as a motor for time-pieces was invented by the Germans, and was rendered necessary to confer
ipboard, the name applied to loose wood at the bottom of a hold to raise the cargo above the bilge-water, and also to chock it and keep it from rolling when stowed. Duplex-escapement. Duo-dec′i-mo. (Printing.) A sheet folded so as to have 12 leaves, — 24 pages. Generally written 12mo. Duplex-es-cape′ment. The duplex-escapement is so called from the double character of its scape-wheel, which has spur and crown teeth. It was invented by that wonderful mechanician, Dr. Hooke, about 1658. The duplex-escapement was improved by Dyrer and Breguet. The balance-arbor carries a pallet which at each oscillation receives an impulse from the crownteeth. In the arbor is a notch into which the spur-teeth fall in succession as the crown-teeth consecutively pass the impulse-pallet. Fairbairn's duplex-lathe. Du′plex-lathe. A lathe invented by Fairbairn for turning-of, screwing, and surfacing. The peculiarity in this lathe consists in the employment of a cuttin
Indian incke, water-colours : graveing; and, above all, the whole secret of mezzo-tinto, and the manner of it, which is very pretty, and good things done with it. — Pepys's Diary, Nov. 1, 1665. At Gresham College, the Royal Society meeting, Mr. Hooke explained to Mr. Pepys the art of drawing pictures by Prince Rupert's rule and machine and another of Dr. Wren's [Sir Christopher]; but he [Dr. Hooke] says nothing do like squares, or, which is best in the world, like a dark room. — Pepys, Feb.Dr. Hooke] says nothing do like squares, or, which is best in the world, like a dark room. — Pepys, Feb. 21, 1666. These devices are apparently for copying; the former is probably on the principle of the pantograph; the squares is a familiar mode of reducing or enlarging by ruling off into equal numbers of squares the original and the paper on which it is copied. The dark room is probably the camera-obscura, in the simple form of a hole in a shutter of a darkened apartment. Cocker [the famous arithmetician] says, that the best light for his life to see a very small thing by, contrary<
and with mats made of reed-grass. The Nogai Tartars of the Caspian have similar shelters. The hatters attribute the art of felting to Clement. The hatters are a very modern guild, and cannot antedate their order beyond the year 1400. Dr. Hooke lectured on felt-making before the Royal Society, 1666. – Pepys. The mechanical features of the operation of felting are derived from the jagged character of the edges of some animal fibers, which enables them to pass in one direction, thatmusket. The name is antiquated. A fusil. Fu-see′--ma-chine′. A machine (Fig. 2133) for cutting the snail-shaped or spirally grooved wheel on which the chains of certain descriptions of watches are wound. It was invented by the renowned Dr. Hooke about 1655. The machine (f) shown is the form that was used in 1741, and illustrates the idea thoroughly. It is also interesting as being the first machine in which change-wheels were used, and is the germ of the screw-cutting lathe. — Thiri
-entter.Snail-gear. Gear-cutting machine.Speed-cones. Gearing-chain.Speed-multiplier. Geometrical radius.Spiral gear. Hooke's gearing.Sprocket-gear. Hunting-cog.Spur-wheel. Interdental.Star-wheel. Intermittent gear.Stepped-gear. Internal gea (From gemellus, Latin, twin.) A two-part joint having articulations on axes at right angles to each other. Invented by Hooke. It is used as a shaft-coupling in the tumbling-rods of horse-powers, in drilling and sheep-shearing machines and elsewhich should exist between the number actually laid down and that which should be contained in a quadrant of the circle. Dr. Hooke proposed the employment of an endless screw for dividing the edge of his quadrant, and this was actually used by Tompion in graduating Flamsteed's sector, probably under the supervision of Hooke. Graham, who attained great reputation as an instrument-maker as well as clock-maker, adopted the principle of continuous bisections by means of a beamcompass. In the in
,000. The hair-spring of a watch is usually a flat helix, but chronometer balance-springs are coiled cylindrically. Hooke introduced the balance-spring into the watch. He made it straight. Huyghens soon after gave it the coiled form. This waring knife (g). Hook′er. (Nautical.) A one-masted merchant vessel of the English and Dutch waters. A howker. Hooke′s Gear′ing. A kind of gearing in which the teeth are somewhat obliquely across the face of the wheel, so that the contthe spiral is such that the contact of one pair of teeth does not terminate until that of the next pair has commenced. Hooke's stepped gearing is of a somewhat similar design. Hooke′s joint. A universal joint. A Gimbaljoint (which see). Hooke′s joint. A universal joint. A Gimbaljoint (which see). Hook′ing-frame. A frame with hooks upon which cloth is measured and suspended, being folded back and forth until the required quantity is reached, when it is cut off and removed to be packed. Hook-mo′tion. (Steam-engine.) A va
he inventor perished in the civil war, 1644. The instrument had nicely ground parallel edges of brass plate, and parallel hairs were substituted by the renowned Dr. Hooke. Huyghens, about 1652, measured the diameter of a planet by inserting in the tube of the telescope, at the focus of the object-glass and eye-glass, a slip of The invention was, however, clearly anticipated by Roger Bacon. Spectacles were in use A. D. 1200. The double microscope was invented by Farncelli in 1624. Dr. Hooke (1635 – 1702) made microscopes of a sphere of glass, from 1/20 to 1/50 of an inch in diameter. Having made and polished his lens, he placed it against a small h be so illuminated that the rays reflected by it shall pass directly to the interior lens. The theory of the solar microscope is said to have been invented by Dr. Hooke, and was described by Professor Balthasaurs in Erlange in 1710; but its practical execution is due to Dr. Lieberkuhn in Berlin, who made the first successful app
e pendulum of the watch is an oscillating wheel termed the balance (h); this is impelled by the mainspring and train in one direction, and is returned by the force of the hair-spring on the arbor of the balance. It is probably the invention of Dr. Hooke. Jewels were added by Facio of Geneva about 1700. The compensation balance (i) was made by Harrison. (See chronometer.) The circumference is divided into two sections, the ends of which are free. The outer rim, or tire, is of brass, and theontracting the inner steel rim, would reduce the circumference; but, as it contracts the outer brass rim still more, an opposite effect is produced, the circumference being enlarged. The effect of expansion is checked in a similar way. j is Dr. Hooke's anchor-escapement. k is the escapement known as the lever, or detached lever. The bar to which the pallets are attached turns upon a center-pin, so that the ends of the lever move backward and forward through small arcs, as the pallets are
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