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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 66 0 Browse Search
The Daily Dispatch: January 9, 1865., [Electronic resource] 2 0 Browse Search
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of hyposulphite of soda. — Mayall. Al′car-ra′za. A vessel of porous earthenware used for cooling the contained liquids by evaporation from the exterior surface. See ice-machine. The word is Arabic, and the device was introduced into Europe by the Spanish Saracens. Alcarrazas are made of a sandy marl made up into paste with saline water and lightly fired. In niches where the current of air could be artificially directed hung dripping alcarrazas. — Description of the Alhambra. Howard's alcohol engine. Al′co-hol En′gine. An engine in which the vapor of alcohol is used as a motive-power. The first suggestion of the machine was by Rev. Edmund Cartwright at the latter end of the last century. The reason why the elastic vapor of alcohol was supposed to be preferable to that produced from water is that it boils at a temperature considerably below that of water. It must be recollected, however, that all leakage and escape of alcohol is not alone an absolute los
ar. 1, 1864. 42,941H. GrossMay 31, 1864. 45,202Bergen and WilliamsonNov. 22, 1864. *45,466J. F. ApplebyDec. 20, 1864. 46,977D. WilliamsonMar. 21, 1865. 48,337Joshua GrayJune 20, 1865. 49,463W. F. Wilson and H. FlatherAug. 15, 1865. 50,125C. HowardSept. 26, 1865. 50,358C. HowardOct. 10, 1865. *52,933J. D. SmithFeb. 27, 1866. *52,934J. D. SmithFeb. 27, 1866. *55,012N. KingMay 22, 1866. *56,939H. W. HaydenAug. 7, 1866. *57,636N. KingAug. 28, 1866. *57,808O. F. WinchesterSept. 4, 1866C. HowardOct. 10, 1865. *52,933J. D. SmithFeb. 27, 1866. *52,934J. D. SmithFeb. 27, 1866. *55,012N. KingMay 22, 1866. *56,939H. W. HaydenAug. 7, 1866. *57,636N. KingAug. 28, 1866. *57,808O. F. WinchesterSept. 4, 1866. *58,937G. W. BriggsOct. 16, 1866. *59,126V. FogertyOct. 23, 1866. *63,564P. ShecklerApr. 2, 1867. 65,812W. W. HubbellJune 18, 1867. *66,751E. L. SturtevantJuly 16, 1867. 68,786M. Pidault and G. Elieze (dit Lagieze)Sept. 10, 1867. *82,819V. FogertyOct. 6, 1868. *84,598L. WheelockDec. 1, 1868. 85,616P. SchulerJan. 5, 1869. *86,723S. G. BayesFeb. 9, 1869. 1. Sliding Longitudinally Backward. (a.) Operated by a Lever.—Continued. No.Name.Date. 86,739T. M. DeprezFeb. 9, 1869. 86,
d shaped like a miniature hoe. Hoe′ing ma-chine′. (Agriculture.) An implement for tending drilled or dibbled crops. It was invented by Jethro Tull, the introducer of the system of drilled crops into England, and was designed to diminish the expense of cultivation by substituting horse labor. Tull's implement was comparatively rude, and it was successively improved by a number of inventors, among whom we notice the names of Blackie, the two Wilkies, Weir, Hayward, Grant, Ganett, Howard, and others in Britain. The history merges into the history of cultivators, in the United States our husbandry being different. Hoes. The great breadth planted to corn and cotton, and the necessity for frequent plowings, havegiven a different form to the tool, as the distance between the rows renders it convenient for the horse, implement, and man to follow the balk, going twice in a row, tending the crop to his right hand each time. This is very different from the hoeing of whea<
57,271, Adams, 1866No. 87,385, Winchester, 1869. No. 82,877, Remington, 1868.No. 90,332, Adams, 1869. No. 90,476, Adams, 1869.No. 102,748, Adams, 1870. No. 92,337, Moore, 1869.No. 103,201, Kuhus, 1870. No. 93,157, Adams, 1869.No. 106,823, Howard, 1870. No. 95,053, Smith, 1869.No. 109,475, Watrous, 1870. No. 98,006, Adams, 1869.No. 113,612, Adams, 1871. No. 98,354, Crooke, 1869.No. 114 191, Parmalce, 1871. No. 100,038, Howard, 1870.No. 116,579, Farmer, 1871. No. 100,961, Adams, 1870.Howard, 1870.No. 116,579, Farmer, 1871. No. 100,961, Adams, 1870.No. 116,658, Adams, 1871. Nick′er. The cutting-lip at the circumference of a center-bit, which cuts in the wood the circle of the hole to be bored. The lip which removes the wood is the router. Nick′ing-bud′dle. (Metallurgy.) A form of buddle used in washing lead ore. Nick′ing-file. A thin file for making nicks in heads of screws. Nick′ing-trunk. (Metallurgy.) A tub in which metalliferous slimes are washed. At the upper end is a trough which discharges a gen
iature skewers. The first mention of brass pins in the English statutes is in 1483, when their importation was prohibited. An act of Henry VIII., A. D. 1543, indicates the clumsy things they were: No person shall put to sale any pinnes, but only such as shall be double-headed, and have the heads soldered fast to the shank of the pinne, well smoothed, the shank well shaven, the point well and round filed, canted and sharpened. The mode of making them was much improved about 1560. Catherine Howard, queen of Henry VIII., it is said, used brass pins brought from France. Before the introduction of Wright's pin-making machine, 1824, the following was the process: Brass wire was straightened by drawing it between pins set in zigzag order on a bench, and was then cut into lengths for six pins. These were taken a number at a time, and pointed at one end by grinding on a coarse and a fine grindstone. A length for a pin was then out from each wire, and the process was repeated till
Some rakeheads revolve, as in the old flop-over rake; in others, the rake-head is formed by or attached to the axle or trails behind it, and the teeth are only lifted to deliver the hay. In some the teeth are independent, so as to yield to obstacles without affecting the operation of other teeth. The rake-head is in some cases turned by hand at the proper moment, but is more commonly arranged to receive motion from the power of the animal when a holding device is released by the driver. Howard's horse-rake (English), g Fig. 4150, is thus described by the makers:— It is intended for raking hay, corn, stubble, or twitch-grass. The shaft-irons are furnished with a joint and quadrant, by which the teeth may be readily altered, so as to rake upon their points, or set more or less off the ground. This method is to prevent the rake collecting the soil and rubbish with grain, an objection frequently raised against the use of horse-rakes; the teeth, being curved or sickle-formed,
. 28, 1871. 118,728LambSept. 5, 1871. 126,056HowardApr. 23, 1872. 126,057HowardApr. 23, 1872. 12HowardApr. 23, 1872. 127,532WeberJune 4, 1872. 133,939HouseDec. 17, 1872. 134,961WhitneyJan. 14, 1873. 135,000McLean et ttachments for ordinary Sewing-Machine. 69,671Howard et al.Oct. 8, 1867. 84,589Sprague et al.Dec. 1, 1868. 92,965HarrounJuly 27, 1869. 94,212Howard et al.Aug. 31, 1869. 95,320CarpenterSept. 28, 1Howard et al.Mar. 4, 1873. (Reissue.)5,336Howard et al.Mar. 25, 1873. 144,672Hansen et al.Nov. 28, 1871. 112,327DufourMar. 7, 1871. 113,669HowardApr. 11, 1871. 116,056HowardJune 20, 1871. 11HowardJune 20, 1871. 117,152Colton et al.July 18, 1871. 117,557MoschcowitzAug. 1, 1871. 117,716AlterAug. 8, 1871. 118,10 24, 1871. 120, 722DarbyNov. 7, 1871. 120,817HowardNov. 14, 1871. 122,268LyonDec. 26, 1871. 122,was pumped through the pipes consecutively. Howard's sectional boiler (Fig. 5631) consists of a slevator. See also elevator; rope-elevator. Howard's valve-gear for steam-heating apparatus. [13 more...]
s shottow-ers and chimneys of manufacturing establishments, they have been built of great hight for purposes of practical utility. Towel-racks. Tow′er-clock. A large clock designed for church turrets and similar situations. That shown in Fig. 6572 has the works arranged in an iron case having legs which are bolted to the floor; the pendulum-rod passes through an elongated opening in the floor. Wooden boxes filled with stones are used as weights. See also Fig. 1332, page 570. Howard's tower-clock. Tow-hook. An artilleryman's hook, used in unpacking ammunition-chests. Tow′ing. (Nautical.) A mode of propulsion of a vessel through the water by a rope from another vessel, or from the shore, or by a rope laid along a canal river and passed over a drum on board the vessel. In harbors tow-boats, or tugs, are specially devoted to this purpose. On canals horses or mules are generally employed. The substitution of other motors for animal power has of late year<
eing in operation, the mercury rises in the leg a and descends in a′. The zero at the lower part of the sliding-scale is brought in apposition with the upper surface of the mercurial column in a; the difference in inches between this and that in the other leg is shown by the scale, and shows the difference between the atmospheric pressure and that inside the condenser. Vac′u-um–pan. A vessel for boiling saccharine juices in vacuo in the process of making sugar. It was the invention of Howard, an Englishman (Nov. 20, 1813), and is the leading feature in the improved sugar-apparatus. Vacuum-gage. It was formerly made of copper, but has been lately made of iron. Its form is usually nearly spheroidal, but it has been made cylindrical. In the spheroidal form, it is made in two segmental or nearly semi-globular portions, which are united at the equator by exterior flanges having holes for bolts. At the top is a dome into which the vapor rises, and from which it is drawn eith<
shipped on account of the Government from Savannah during the next two months. Miscellaneous. The United States Senators whose terms expire on the 4th of March next are Saulsbury, of Delaware, who will be re-elected; Richardson, of Illinois, who will be succeeded by Richard Yates; Grimes, of Iowa, and Anthony, of Rhode Island, who have been re-elected; Hale, of New Hampshire, who will be succeeded by Aaron H. Cragin; Harding, of Oregon, who will be succeeded by George H. Williams; Howard, of Michigan; Wilson, of Massachusetts; Powell, of Kentucky; Farwell, of Maine; Wilkinson, of Minnesota; Ten Eyck, of New Jersey, and Carlile, of the State of Virginia. The New York National Club was to have had a dinner on Saturday evening in honor of the victories of Generals Sherman and Thomas. The New York Herald shows its characteristic "enterprise" by getting up a four-column report, in which Governor Andrew, of Massachusetts, is made to sing a song, and General Dix, Recorder Ho