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become accurately acquainted with the maxims by which the Court of Spain governed its conduct towards our part of America. Accounts of the differences between America and England are to be sought not only in the sources already referred to, but specially in the correspondence of the Colony Agents resident in London, with their respective Constituents. I pursued the search for papers of this class, till I succeeded in securing letters official or private from Bollan; Jasper Mauduit; Richard Jackson,—the same who was Grenville's Secretary at the Exchequer, a distinguished Member of Parliament, and at one time Agent for three Colonies;—Arthur Lee; several unpublished ones of Franklin; the copious and most interesting, official and private Correspondence of William Samuel Johnson, Agent for Connecticut; one letter and fragments of letters of Edmund Burke, Agent for New-York; many and exceedingly valuable ones, of Garth a Member of Parliament and Agent for South Carolina; and specimen
and the handmaid of liberty, its representatives Records of the Town of Boston for 26 May, 1766. Boston Gazette, 2 June, 1766; 583, 2, 1. were Chap. XXV.} 1766. May. charged to keep up a constant intercourse with the other English governments on the continent, to conciliate any difference that should arise; ever preferring their friendship and confidence to the demands of rigorous justice. Henceforth its watchword was union, which the rash conduct of the dismayed Hutchinson to Richard Jackson, 11 June, 1766. officers of the crown contributed to establish. Bernard was elated at having been praised in the House of Lords by Camden for one set of his opinions, and quoted in the Bedford Protest as an oracle for the other. There was even a rumor that he was to be made a baronet. His superciliousness Diary of Oakes Angier. rose with his sense of personal safety; and he gave out, that on the meeting of the legislature, he should play out his part as Governor. In choosing th
ent over as the representative of the colonial Crown Officers Candidus, in Boston Gazette, 9 Sept. 1771., with special authority to appear as the friend of Oliver Compare Oliver to Whately, 7 May, 1767. and of Hutchinson. Hutchinson to R. Jackson, introducing Paxton; date not given, but evidently of Oct. 1766. We are drawing near the measures which compelled the insurrection of the colonies; but all the stars in their courses were harbingers of American Independence. No sooner werentry. Bernard to Shelburne, 22 Dec. 1766. The debates unmasked the hypocrisy of Hutchinson; and roused the public to a sense of danger from Paxton's Hutchinson to Paxton, Dec. 1766. voyage to England. The jealous Legislature dismissed Richard Jackson from the service of the Province; and the House elected the honest, but aged Dennys De Berdt as its own particular Agent. This is the time from which Hutchinson dated the revolt of the Colonies; and his correspondence and advice conformed
s is the rhodomontade of a Don Quixote, said the French Minister, and Choiseul kept the guidance of affairs in his own hand, and for the time was resolved not to disturb the peace. Executive moderation might still have saved England from a conflict. Undismayed by the disorder in the cabinet, the ill health of Chatham, the factions in a corrupt Parliament, or the unpromising aspect of foreign relations, and impressed with the necessity of giving up trifles that created uneasiness, Richard Jackson to Hutchinson, Jan. 1767. Shelburne proceeded diligently to make himself master of each American Paper indorsed, Things to be considered of in North America, in Lansdowne House Mss. Compare the Justice and Policy of the late Act of Parliament for Quebec, 1774, 17. question, and to prepare its solution. The subject of the greatest consequence was the forming an American fund. To this end, without exercising rigor in respect to quit-rents long due, he proposed to break up the syste
with Israel Mauduit and Whately, and through them with Jenkinson, Grenville and Wedderburn, his plausible letters to Richard Jackson had so imposed upon the more liberal statesmen of England, that they looked forward with hope to his appointment as , and member of the House of Commons, who was present, and from W. S. Johnson, who got reports from Whately and from Richard Jackson, and from Trecothick. Compare Walpole's Memoirs, III. 28; Cavendish Debates, i. 38, 39, 213; Franklin's Writings, V De Kalb to Choiseul, 16 Oct. 1768; and Franklin, IV. 388. and yet it was received in the House with general favor. Richard Jackson was not regarded, when he spoke Richard Jackson to W. S. Johnson, 5 April, 1774; and Same to Same, 30 Nov. 1784. Richard Jackson to W. S. Johnson, 5 April, 1774; and Same to Same, 30 Nov. 1784. against the duties themselves, and foretold the mischiefs that would ensue. Grenville who must have shed tears of spite, if he Chap. XXIX.} 1767. May. could not have croaked out a presage of evil, Burke's Works, i. 255. Am. ed. heard with m
damned, Hutchinson to——26 March, 1768. if they did not find against the paper, as containing High Treason. The Jury refused. Oaths and the laws have lost their force, Hutchinson to the Duke of Grafton, 27 March, 1768. Hutchinson to Richard Jackson, 23 March, 1768. wrote Hutchinson; while the people were overjoyed, Compare A. Eliot to T. Hollis, 18 April, 1768. Hutchinson's Hist. of Massachusetts, III. 184. and the honest and independent Grand Jurors became the favorite toast of t to the joint freedom of America and Ireland; to the immortal memory of Brutus, Cassius, Hampden and Sidney. Those who dined together broke up early. There was no bonfire lighted, and in the evening, these are Hutchinson's Hutchinson to Richard Jackson, 23 March, 1768. words, written within the week of the event, we had only such a mob as we have long been used to on the Fifth of November, and other holidays. Gage Gage to the Secretary of State, 31 October, 1768. too, who afterwards ma
above fear. E. Silliman to W. S. Johnson, 10 Nov. 1768. Wm. Pitkin to W. S. Johnson, 6 June, 1768; Wm. Pitkin to Richard Jackson, 10 June, 1768. At New-York the merchants held a meeting to Chap. Xxxiii} 1768. May. join with the inhabitantsition towards England than had existed for several years. The two parties were nearer an equality. Hutchinson to Richard Jackson, 14 June, 1768. On the day of election, after hearing a sermon in which Shute of Hingham denied the supreme authoritsborough, 30 May, 1768. This annual election of the Council spoils the Constitution, wrote Hutchinson, Hutchinson to R. Jackson, 4 June, 1768. though he afterwards uttered the falsehood of denying his opinion. The House, reported Bernard to Hillspost of Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, and to leave the Government of Massachusetts in the hands of Hutchinson. Richard Jackson to Hutchinson, 3 June, 1768. Just at this time, the Ministry in England re- June. ceived the letters of March f
om I pressed this morning. By the Eternal God, I will make their hearts ache before I leave it. Affidavit of Nathaniel Waterman. Compare also Hutchinson to R. Jackson, 18 June, 1768. And he continued his impressments, in violation, as the lawyers and people of Boston believed, of an explicit statute. The Commissioners had retended had been made several weeks before. The collector thought she might remain at Hancock's Wharf after she had received the broad arrow; Hutchinson to R. Jackson, 16 June, 1768. but the Comptroller had concerted to moor her under the guns of the Romney, which lay a quarter of a mile off, and made a signal for the man ofseized on the Collector's pleasure-boat, dragged it in triumph to Boston Common and burnt it. After this, at about one o'clock, they dispersed, Hutchinson to R. Jackson, 16 June, 1768. De Berdt's Memorial to Hillsborough, with the accompanying affidavits. Bernard's Letter to the Ministry. and the town resumed its quiet. On
un- Chap. XXXIX.} 1769. Jan. surpassed distinctness, Andrew Eliot to T. Hollis, 29 January, 1769. Hutchinson to Richard Jackson, Jan. 1769. and appointing an intercolonial committee of correspondence. Compare R. R. Livingston to R. Livingsto Postscript, Supplement to No. 4, Private; Bernard to Hillsborough, 14 Feb. 1769. and Hutchinson Hutchinson to Richard Jackson, 28 January, 1769. also, most secretly See the whole of Bernard to Hillsborough, 26 January, 1769. furnished listhis associates. The wily Hutchinson opposed with all his influence the repeal of the Revenue Act; Hutchinson to Richard Jackson, 24 Jan. 1769. recommended to remove the main Chap. XXXIX.} 1769. Jan. objection to Parliamentary authority, by the colonists of such a plan of representation in the British Parliament, as he knew they must reject; Hutchinson to Richard Jackson, 24 Jan. 1769, and to Gov. Pownall, 29 Jan. 1769. informed against the free constitutions of Massachusetts, Connecti
session. I approve the middle course, said Beckford. I was the first man who said you ought not tax America for the purpose of revenue. The duty upon tea, with a great army to collect it, has produced in the Southern part of America, only two hundred and ninety-four pounds, fourteen shillings; in the Northern part it has produced nothing. For the sake of a paltry revenue, cried Lord Beauchamp, we lose the affection of two millions of people. We have trusted to terror too long, observed Jackson. Washing my hands of the charge of severity, said Lord North, I will not vote for holding out hopes, that may not be realized. If you are ready to repeal this Act, retorted Grenville, in answer to Lord North, why keep it in force for a single hour? You ought not to do so, from anger or ill-humor. Why dally and delay in a business of such infinite importance? Why pretend that it is too late in the session, that this is not the time, when the difficulty is every day increasing? If the A
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