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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 23 1 Browse Search
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king the recoil. Rifled cannon were first employed in actual service in Louis Napoleon's Italian campaign of 1859. General James's, 1861, were the first introduced into the United States service. These were service-pattern smooth-bores, rifled and furnished with projectiles also invented by General James. Captain Parrott's gun soon followed James's. This was constructed by shrinking a wrought-iron reinforce over the breech of a cast-iron core, and was noted for its fewness of grooves and sJames's. This was constructed by shrinking a wrought-iron reinforce over the breech of a cast-iron core, and was noted for its fewness of grooves and smallness of caliber in proportion to the weight of the projectile, which was very elongated. Wiard's gun was of steel, hammered and welded, and was accompanied by a peculiar and novel carriage. The 3-inch Ordnance or Griffin gun was finally adoptewedge-shaped piece, shown in section, is driven forward, expanding a soft metal ring which fills the grooves. b b, the James. The gas passes through the aperture at the back, driving out a number of pins, which expand a fibrous mass surrounding
that zinc plates are substituted for stone. Cutting and Bradford, as well as Osborne, contemplated the production of the printable picture on zinc, as well as on stone; the latter produced copies of maps in this way in March, 1860. To Col. Sir Henry James, however, the credit is due of giving to a process on zinc, elaborated by the employees of the Southampton Map Office, considerable prominence and importance. This process resembles Asser's, but only to the extent that a transfer is employed. In its details it is identical with Osborne's (omitting the use of albumen). Both these inventors anticipated James, and published elaborate descriptions of their processes. The Southampton office has made a very useful application of photozincography for the production of old historical manuscripts, such as Domesday book and similar documents; but the quality of the results obtained does not appear to have reached a degree of excellence which would justify the extended application of
A rack-rail, laid along the track and engaged by a cog-wheel upon and driven by the engine. See rack-rail. Converting each wheel of the train into a driver, by a temporary connection with the engine of the axles throughout the train. James's English patent, 1825, has a horizontal shaft extended by couplings beneath the carriages the whole length of the train. This shaft was rotated by the engine when required, and connected by bevel-gearing with the axles of each car throughout thbeen constructed, which fulfill their intended purpose with considerable success. The more prominent of these are constructed on the general plans of Ransome and Sims, or of R. W. Thomson of Edinburgh, who introduced the flexible rubber tire. James's (b, Fig. 4359), patented in 1867, is one of the earlier of the more recent American efforts in this line. It has coupled drive-wheels, the tread of which consists of segments of a circle supported on separate spokes. Ransome and Sims's self
pistons were connected to working-beams, whose other ends were attached to rocking-standards, which became inclined toward the cylinders as the pistons rose, and allowed the latter to move in a vertical line. At a point on each working-beam, between its connections to the piston and rock-post respectively, was attached the connecting-rod, which was keyed to the crank on the driving-axle. The cranks were at an angle of 90°, and dispensed with a fly-wheel. The machine was not successful. James, of Birmingham, England, from 1824 to 1832, appears to have constructed several steam-carriages. He caused the engines and their framework to oscillate upon an axis, and connected these engines to the induction and eduction steam-pipes by means of hollow axles moving in stuffing-boxes, which, together with the body of the carriage, were suspended on springs bolted to the axle trees. The cylinders were 4 in number, and the crank was a 4-throw, the cranks being arranged at angles of 90°.
e time when the invention was made public, and had a right to know whereof he affirmed. He says it was made by James Metius, and was due to a fortunate accident. James was a glass-cutter, and had a brother who was a professor of mathematics and a maker of mirrors and burning-glasses. James, it appears, was amusing himself by tryJames, it appears, was amusing himself by trying the effect of looking through two glasses, held in line and at a distance, by the respective hands. Fortunately he tried the experiment with a concave and convex glass, which gave the wonderful effect now so familiar. They were fitted in a wooden tube, and made the first telescope ever used in the world, says Descartes. The plate of iron through a series of holes in a die, giving it a cup-shape, which is eventually opened at bottom and elongated to a cylinder, by drawing as before. James and Jones, 1811 (b c m p). 1. The heated skelp is turned over a mandrel, and swaged by a hammer, while resting in a grooved anvil. 2. Welded and rolled by groo