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Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 1. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), The treatment of prisoners during the war between the States. (search)
ers, because he was believed to be in a dying condition; as it was manifestly the purpose to poison all that could be destroyed by deleterious food and water, or by neglect of their wants. He said that negroes fired into their beds at night; and one was promoted for killing a prisoner, from the ranks to sergeant. Claiborne Snead, of Augusta, Georgia, writes from Johnson's Island, that prisoners were frequently shot without an excuse; that prisoners having the small-pox were brought to Johnson's island on purpose to inoculate the rest of the prisoners, and that many died of that disease; a crime for which civilized government visits the most terrible penalties. Yet this disease, thus planted, was kept there until it had spent its force. That the rations were bad, and prisoners went to bed suffering the pangs of hunger. That although Lake Erie was not one hundred yards distant, yet these prisoners were forced to drink from three holes dug in the prison bounds, surrounded by
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 1. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), Attack on Fort Gilmer, September 29th, 1864. (search)
one indeed, whereas the truth was that upon that same 29th September, Richmond came nearer being captured, and that, too, by negro troops, than it ever did during the whole war, and but for the devotion and bravery of two decimated brigades, Bushrod Johnson's old Tennessee brigade and the Texas brigade, consisting of about three hundred (300) men each, the Yankees must have carried everything before them and captured Richmond. I shall try now to give you as correct an account as I can of thiead, Augusta Georgia, and Lieutenant H. E. Blair, of Roanoke. On the 29th September, 1864, there were on the north side of James river, in the neighborhood of Chaffin's Bluff, about two thousand (2,000) men, consisting of what remained of Bushrod Johnson's Tennessee brigade (300 strong), commanded by a colonel whose name I think was Johnston; the Texas brigade, also commanded by a colonel whose name I do not remember; the City battalion, some battalions of Department troops (made up of clerk
tack should commence upon our extreme left, and this duty was assigned to Brigadier-General Pillow, assisted by Brigadier-General Johnson. The conclusion was reached and the specific adjustment of the details of the plan of battle settled about a brigades supporting. His left, composed of Simonton's and Drake's brigades and Forrest's cavalry, was confided to Bushrod Johnson, who here first proved himself a hard-hitter — a character he bore throughout the war. At 4 A. M., on Saturday, the ed by the confusion in the Southern line, and hoping to profit by it, were now advancing. In the mean time, Brigadier General Johnson was leading into action still farther to the left, and consequently over greater spaces, Simonton's and Drake's, according to the preconcerted plan, to allow the army to pass out by the opened road, and to cover their retreat. Bushrod Johnson was following up the tactics of the morning, which had so far proved successful, and was pressing Cruft fiercely. A
, and Brigadier-General Gladden, there was a great number of regimental officers killed. Bragg had two horses shot under him; Hardee was slightly wounded, his coat cut and his horse disabled by a shell; Breckinridge was twice slightly struck; Cheatham was also slightly wounded, and had three horses shot under him. Brigadier-Generals Clark, Bowen, and Johnson, were severely wounded, and Hindman was injured by a shell exploding under his horse and killing it. Colonel Smith, who succeeded Bushrod Johnson in command of his brigade, was wounded; and Colonel Dan Adams, and Colonel Deas, who in turn succeeded Gladden, were also wounded. The long list of field and company officers, and of brave soldiers, would swell too much the bulk of this volume. The Comte de Paris says (volume i., page 542) that Sherman told him that Sunday's battle was the most terrible that he had witnessed during his whole career. Badeau remarks (volume i., page 78) in regard to the assault on Sherman Sunday mor
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, The Passing of the Armies: The Last Campaign of the Armies., Biographical note. (search)
ad other qualities as important, namely, foresight, prudence, and a strong sense of responsibility. On his return to Maine, he was offered the choice of several diplomatic offices abroad, but was at once elected Governor of Maine by the largest majority ever given in the State. As Governor, while rendering exceptional service to the State, he suffered criticism on various grounds, and among others through his support of the course of Senator Fessenden, of Maine, in the impeachment of President Johnson. In 1876, General Chamberlain was elected President of Bowdoin College. In 1878, he was appointed by the President of the United States to represent the educational interests of the country as a commissioner at the World's Exposition in Paris, and for this service he received a medal of honor from the Government of France. In 1883, he resigned the presidency of Bowdoin College, but continued for two years longer his lectures on public law. During this time, he put to one side
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, The Passing of the Armies: The Last Campaign of the Armies., Chapter 2: the overture. (search)
nction of the Boydton and White Oak, reminded of the enemy's neighborhood by a few cannon shots from their entrenchments near Burgess' Mill bridgehead. At about this time word comes that the Second Corps is on our right, not far away. By our action a lodgment had been effected which became the pivot of the series of undulations on the left, which after three days resulted in turning the right flank of Lee's army. We had been fighting Gracie's, Ransom's, Wallace's, and Wise's Brigades, of Johnson's Division, under command of General R. H. Anderson, numbering, as by their last morning reports, 6277 officers and men effective for the field. My own brigade in this engagement numbered less than 1700 officers and men. Mitchell's battery and Gregory's and Bartlett's regiments assisting in the final advance added to this number probably 1000 more. Their total loss in this engagement was slight in numbers. The loss in my brigade was a quarter of those in line. My fight was over, b
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, The Passing of the Armies: The Last Campaign of the Armies., Chapter 3: the White Oak Road. (search)
aker Road. On the morning of the 29th, Lee had also despatched General R. H. Anderson with Bushrod Johnson's Division- Gracie's, Ransom's, Wise's, and Wallace's Brigades --to reinforce his main entrMcGowan's South Carolina Brigade and McRae's North Carolina, of Hill's Corps, to strengthen Bushrod Johnson's Division in the entrenchments there; but took two of Johnson's brigades-Ransom's and WallJohnson's brigades-Ransom's and Wallace's — with three brigades of Pickett's Division (leaving Hunton's in the entrenchments), to go with Pickett to reinforce Fitzhugh Lee at Five Forks. W. H. F. Lee's Division of cavalry, about one th after the exigency at Five Forks had called away most of its defenders,--Generals Anderson and Johnson, with Hunton, Wise, Gracie, and Fulton's Brigades being of the number,--and the whole rebel arm cavalry reinforcements occupy Sheridan, and rushed Pickett's Division with the two brigades of Johnson's down the White Oak Road upon the flank of the momentarily demoralized Fifth Corps, while Hunt
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, The Passing of the Armies: The Last Campaign of the Armies., Chapter 5: the week of flying fights. (search)
Railroad crossing. There were gathered also the fugitives from Pickett's and Johnson's Divisions, covered by the remainder of those divisions that had not been in Division, and Wise's, Gracie's (commanded by Colonel Sanford), and Fulton's of Johnson's Division, all under command of General R. H. Anderson. Their ultimate destie to him the solitary honor and peril of confronting there Heth's, and what of Johnson's and Pickett's Divisions and Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry, falling back that afternetersburg. Those with whom we had been principally engaged, Pickett's and Bushrod Johnson's Divisions, with Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry, moved up the south side of the Amight have been able to move rapidly enough to make a successful junction with Johnson at Danville, or at least, to reach the mountains of Lynchburg. What would the bridges behind him and moving out on the road to Lynchburg. Gordon, with Johnson's and Mahone's Divisions following, crossed to the north side of the Appomatto
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, The Passing of the Armies: The Last Campaign of the Armies., Chapter 6: Appomattox. (search)
come Gordon's Georgians and Hoke's North Carolinians, who stood before the terrific mine explosion at Petersburg, and advancing retook the smoking crater and the dismal heaps of dead-ours more than theirs-huddled in the ghastly chasm. Here are the men of McGowan, Hunton, and Scales, who broke the Fifth Corps lines on the White Oak Road, and were so desperately driven back on that forlorn night of March 31St by my thrice-decimated brigade. Now comes Anderson's Fourth Corps, only Bushrod Johnson's Division left, and this the remnant of those we fought so fiercely on the Quaker Road two weeks ago, with Wise's Legion, too fierce for its own good. Here passes the proud remnant of Ransom's North Carolinians which we swept through Five Forks ten days ago,--and all the little that was left of this division in the sharp passages at Sailor's Creek five days thereafter. Now makes its last front A. P. Hill's old Corps, Heth now at the head, since Hill had gone too far forward eve
Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, The Passing of the Armies: The Last Campaign of the Armies., Chapter 10: Sherman's Army. (search)
name officially signed to a bulletin published in the New York papers entertaining the suggestion that Sherman might be influenced by pecuniary considerations to let Jeff Davis get out of the country. This was not short of infamous on Stanton's part. Sherman meant so to stigmatize it, and he did, in the face of all on a supreme public occasion. With our experience of discipline, we wondered what the next move of Stanton would be. Sherman might have declined the President's hand; but President Johnson had assured him that he knew nothing about the bulletins, as Stanton had not consulted anybody nor shown them to any member of the Cabinet. Had the President sanctioned them, I doubt not Sherman would have resented the act from whomsoever coming. Sherman was a hale fellow well met, but a hard fellow when unfairly treated. For all General Sherman's compliments on the appearance of our army, he was quite sensitive about the comparison of the intrinsic merits of his army and ours.
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