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pe; exchequer we had none; our opponents could raise millions at home or abroad; our leaders were few, of inferior rank and little reputation; our foes had one at their head fondly called by themselves the greatest general of his age. Save Lee, Johnston, Beauregard, and Cooper, we had riot one single officer of note; and the first-named was only a colonel of dragoons in the old United States service. It is true that several officers (among them Van Dorn, Longstreet, Ewell, and Evans) in the In through the Shenandoah Valley. This accordingly became the grand rendezvous, and the troops that first arrived were camped there: some few were sent twenty-five miles to the front (Fairfax Court-house and station) to watch the enemy, while General Johnston proceeded down the Shenandoah Valley with all he could gather, to watch and oppose General Patterson, who was massing his troops on the Maryland bank of the Potomac, and threatening Harper's Ferry. General Pegram was in Western Virginia, wat
the east, and with the Western Virginia and Ohio Railroads to the west. General Joe Johnston is at the Ferry with a small force guarding the passage; for if General with incessantly. Little could be gleaned regarding Federal movements. General Joe Johnston had evacuated Harper's Ferry, we knew, and the act was much censured by ubsequently named Stonewall by way of distinction) was second in command under Johnston, and guarded the Upper Potomac with great vigilance. It was evident the Federy towards Charlestown, (midway between Harper's Ferry and Winchester,) whither Johnston's main force had retired. While Johnston's and Patterson's forces were thus fJohnston's and Patterson's forces were thus facing each other near Charlestown things were unchanged at Manassas. Reports, indeed, were circulated daily regarding the enemy's movements, but nothing of consequenthere assembled did not muster more than twenty thousand men, and twenty guns; Johnston having ten thousand men and twenty guns with him in the Shenandoah Valley.
Chapter 4: Warlike preparations around Manassas Beauregard and other Generals our position at Bull Run advance of the enemy a night surprise loss to the enemy General Tyler advances to force a passage at Blackburn's Ford battle of Bull Run, July eighteenth the enemy retire, with loss anxiety regarding Johnston's movements night adventures courage of an English Landowner our Generals forewarned of meditated movements. For several days I was unwell, and could not attend to duty, but being allowed to walk about at leisure, I frequently strolled down to the Junction, to watch the progress of our preparations. A large redoubt about half a mile long, and a quarter wide, had been erected since my previous visit; it was at least ten feet high, and as many wide on the top, with a large ditch in front. The batteries at the angles were semicircular, with embrasures for four thirty-two-pounders, the mouths of which looked like black bull-dogs, protecting the road. In
l parties, with an over-allowance of tents; and as white canvas-covered wagons were continually seen moving about over the hills, and as our various camps were wide-spread and plentifully supplied with fuel, it was thought by their journals that Johnston was in chief command of our troops, and had not less than from thirty to forty thousand men. The truth is, that Johnston and Beauregard were manoeuvring around Fairfax Court-House with the main army, while Centreville and Manassas were beingJohnston and Beauregard were manoeuvring around Fairfax Court-House with the main army, while Centreville and Manassas were being impregnably fortified; the total force with which we made so great a show numbering only some three thousand infantry, with four light field-pieces, and a squadron of cavalry. Evans, however, moved us about continually; now we marched opposite the Sugar Loaf, our tents still standing in the old camp-ground near Leesburgh; next day would find us in some other direction; so that at last the enemy were completely deceived as to our number or position, and were ever on the qui vive. So complete wa
heir advice and counsel ; but the majority of these strangers came with the modest determination to offer their services at large salaries, pretending that if they were not accepted for this or that office, some State or other would feel humbled, perhaps secede from the Confederacy, and I know not what. It was laughable indeed to hear the self-sacrificing Solons holding forth in bar-rooms or in private. Their ideas of all things military were decidedly rich, and would have astonished poor Johnston or Beauregard, who were put down as mere schoolboys beside them. General Washington Dobbs, who had been engaged all his life in the leather business somewhere in Georgia, had come up to proffer his valuable services as brigadier; but being unsuccessful, his patriotism and indignation electrified the whole private family where he boarded. Colonel Madison Warren, some poor relation of the English blacking-maker, had lived in some out-of-the-way swamp in the Carolinas; he came to Richmond t
ce, and there are many who protest that he was greatly under the influence of liquor during the battle of Mill Spring. This vice is too prevalent among talented men of the South. When this news was brought to Bowling Green, it explained why Johnston had been so careful in transporting all supplies and ordnance to the rear for more than two weeks. None doubted that a retreat was inevitable: the enemy had shown their strength on our right, and driven in Crittenden, while Grant was preparing td, as you will remember, had been under Lee in Western Virginia, among the mountains, but as that campaign, from paucity of numbers on our part, had been productive of more expense than profit, he was ordered to cross the mountains and report to Johnston at Bowling Green. His force was a small one, but well seasoned; so that, upon Grant appearing in the Cumberland, he was ordered to Fort Donelson, and was chief in command by seniority. Buckner's force was also ordered there, arid myself with
e Holy Communion Table. Such an instance occurred on the morning of Manassas, and I could not help remarking it, as I rode past in the twilight on that eventful occasion. The Jesuits were perfect soldiers in their demeanor; ever at the head of a column in the advance, ever the last in a retreat; and on the battle-field a black cassock, in a bending posture, would always betray the disciple of Loyola, ministering to the wounded or dying. No hospital-could be found wherein was not a pale-faced, meek, and untiring man of this order. Soldierly in their education and bearing, they are ready for any thing — to preachy prescribe for the sick, or offer a wise suggestion on military or social affairs. It is to the foresight and judgment of one of them that Beauregard and Johnston escaped death or capture at Manassas, for had they not met one of these missionaries during the heat of the conflict, and heeded his modest advice, one or other of these calamities must have inevitably ensued
t wake till long after sunrise, by which time our troops had all passed, except a few stragglers, who hurried on in great haste, bringing the agreeable news that the Yankee cavalry in great force were close at our heels! I immediately took to the woods for safety, and reached Williamsburgh about noon. Expecting the enemy to pursue, our brigade was in battle array; but up to two P. M. none had appeared; so the line of march was resumed, and we halted in the streets of Williamsburgh, before Johnston's headquarters. The Warwick and Yorktown roads converge a short distance east of this little town, the whole eastern part of it being cleared like a lawn, and exactly suitable for a fight. Several earthworks fully commanded all this open space and the east portion of the town, having been erected by Magruder to protect his late winter-quarters. A few pieces of artillery were pointed eastward along the roads, when suddenly the enemy appeared, and, under cover of the woods, commenced shell
ingly unwell at one of the many beautiful residences near this point; but it was whispered confidentially: Oh! he's not very sick! he's been on a spree because Johnston would not fight at Yorktown It is only the effect of too much Bourbon and chagrin! This was probably the truth. This accomplished but nervous officer very much desired to fight and immortalize his name at Yorktown, behind the lines he had so scientifically planned and perfected in secrecy; but Lee and Johnston could penetrate more deeply into the enemy's plans there than the fighting engineer deemed worthy of consideration; and to engage a superior force, with our flanks unprotected androad, called , St. Joseph's ; and it was a perfect paradise of cleanliness and comfort. From information I could gather round the War Office, it appears that Johnston had remained in line of battle more than a week several miles north of the Chickahominy, in the vain hope that McClellan would attack. The Federals, however, re
dly supplied, and discussion deferred until times of peace. Accordingly, when Johnston had fallen back to his line of defence around Richmond, we found many new regi them, naught but good humor and hilarity was visible, for they well knew that Johnston could not fall back farther, and that the conflict must soon come. This they d of bystanders lengthened while gazing upon them. Well, said they, I suppose Johnston is going to give up Richmond like every thing else, and will continue to fall lied thence to the army by excellent roads, and the York River railroad, which Johnston, in retreat, wisely or unwisely, left intact. The Northern merchantmen also auns had set. In fact, it has been suggested, and I believe it to be true, that Johnston's only reason for leaving the York River Railroad untouched in his retreat, wanear enough to shell Richmond at discretion. Every inducement was held out by Johnston to draw the enemy from their works and woods into the open space before us, bu
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