In 1770 the Russians burned the Turkish fleet in the port of Tchesme, and destroyed the fortifications by the shock of the explosion.
In 1804 the loaded catamarans of Fulton were used by the English against the French fleet off Boulogne.
But little damage was done.
The experiments were repeated again and again against Le Forte Rouge at Calais, 1804 (Fulton blew up the brig Dorothea in Walmer Roads, October, 1805.
See Fulton's Torpedo war, and Torpedoes, their invention and use, by W. R. King, U. S. A., 1866, Plates XVIII., XIX.); Rochefort, 1809: the pontoon bridges of the French on the Danube, at Essling; in 1813, by the Austrians in attempting to destroy the bridges across the Elbe at Koenigstein.
About 1843 Colonel S. Colt constructed a torpedo with which he blew up a ship in the Eastern Branch of the Potomac River, near the Washington Navy Yard; it is believed that the most important feature of this consisted in the application of electro-magnetism as a means of explodi