n England, produced some really pretty work by a combination of metallic plates and wooden blocks.
Lithography was invented by Alois Senefelder, who was born at Prague, 1771.
(See lithography.) In short, it may be described as drawing upon stone with a material which, when treated with certain chemicals, will take up the printer's ink when rolled up. Senefelder, even at that early date in the history of the art, spoke of the possibility of making fac-similes of oil-paintings.
Storch and Kramer, of Berlin, successfully reproduced oilpaintings by this process (1840 – 1850).
In making chromo-lithographs, an outline drawing is made by tracing, and this is transferred to all the stones (one for each color), required to complete the picture; so as to secure exactness in the corelation of all parts on each stone.
Within these outlines, and upon these different stones, the artist draws the different tints and colors.
The number of stones, or plates, needed to complete the chromo, var
ry was turned so as to present the appropriate letter indicated at the transmitting station to the paper slip which was by suitable mechanism drawn to the type-wheel to receive an impression.
Professor Hughes has also invented a very ingenious printing-telegraph, depending upon the synchronous revolutions of two or more type-wheels at different stations.
Various forms of dials or pointer telegraphs have been devised by Breguet in France, Siemens and Halske and Kramer in Germany, and various improvements in the details of construction by numerous others which the limits of this article will not permit us even to refer to. See specific index under telegraph.
An apparatus consisting of a magnet, with a recording-dial, clock-works, and a signal-bell; from this run wires, one to each of the banks or other offices under guard where watchmen are employed, whose duty it is to visit each bank at stated times during the nig