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mand. Several improvements made by him in the mechanism, and the later progress in machinery generally, have increased the annual production in that State to hundreds of thousands, and given to every household a clock, equal to the old ones, at a cost of $2 and upward. His descendants have been engaged in the business to the present time, and his pupil, Chauncey Jerome, since 1821. The Assembly of Connecticut, in October, 1783, awarded a patent for fourteen years to Benjamin Hanks, of Litchfield, for a self-winding clock. It was to wind itself by the help of the air, and to keep more regular time than other machines. The principle was made use of in New York and elsewhere. Several ingenious applications of natural pulsations have been made to effect the same purpose: Washburn's Thermal-motor, for instance, in which the expansion and contraction of bars of metal is made by differential levers and ratchets to wind the spring. Clocks with hands and dials having a common cente
renuous opposition of Zuinglius and some of the early reformers, the German churches were, during the sixteenth century, generally provided with organs. During this century, the German builders introduced the register and the stopped pipe. The key-board also was extended to four octaves. England, also, was well provided with artists of this class, and possessed some fine instruments. In 1634, we are informed that the organ in the cathedral of Durham cost pound1,000. Those of York, Litchfield, Hereford, Bristol, and other cathedral towns were also noted. During the civil war, the Puritans, particularly the parliamentary soldiers, destroyed many fine organs, breaking them in pieces and selling the pipes for old metal. Few or none being built during this period, the art became almost forgotten in England, so that Pepys records, under date of July 8, 1660: To White-Hall Chapel, where I got in with ease by going before the Lord Chancellor with Mr. Kipps. Here I heard very good