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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Alexander, William, 1726-1783 (search)
conspicuous service in the battle of Long Island (Aug. 27, 1776) he was made a prisoner, but was woon exchanged; and in 1777 he was commissioned by Congress a major-general. He fought with Washington on the Brandywine on Sept. 11, 1777, and was specially distinguished at Germantown and Monmouth, commanding the left wing of the American army in the last-named engagement. He was one of the most faithful of Washington's soldiers during the war. William Alexander married a daughter of William Livingston, of New Jersey, and had been, like his father, surveyor-general. He was also an excellent mathematician and astronomer. He was one of the founders of the New York Society Library, and also of King's College (now Columbia University). Alexander Humphreys, born in Birmingham, England, in 1783, claimed the earldom of Stirling. In 1824 he obtained the royal license to assume the name of Alexander, because he had a maternal grandfather of that name, and his deceased mother was a great-gr
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Episcopacy in America. (search)
He charged them with having become infidels and barbarians ; and the prelate concluded that the only remedy for the great evil was to be found in a Church establishment. His recommendations were urged with zeal by churchmen in the colonies. The Dissenters were aroused. They observed in the bishop's sermon the old persecuting spirit of the Church, and visions of Laud and the Star Chamber disturbed them. Eminent writers in America entered the lists in opposition to him. Among others, William Livingston, whose famous letter to the bishop, issued in pamphlet form, refuted the charges of that dignitary so completely that they were not repeated. The theological controversy ceased when the vital question of resistance to the oppressive power of both Church and state was brought to a final issue. The first English bishop within the domains of the American republic was Samuel Seabury (q. v.), of Connecticut, who was consecrated by three bishops of the Scottish Episcopal Church, Nov. 14, 1
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Federal convention, the. (search)
, of South Carolina, had been members of the Stamp act Congress (q. v.) at New York in 1765. Washington, Dickinson, and Rutledge had been members of the Continental Congress of 1774. From that body also were Roger Sherman, of Connecticut; William Livingston, governor of New Jersey; George Read, of Delaware, and George Wythe, of Virginia. From among the signers of the Declaration of Independence, besides Franklin, Read, Wythe, and Sherman, had come Elbridge Gerry, of Massachusetts, and Robert es, John Lansing, Jr., and Alexander Hamilton; New Jersey— David Brearley, William Churchill Hous- Signatures to the Constitution. Signatures to the Constitution. Signatures to the Constitution. ton, William Paterson, John Neilson, William Livingston, Abraham Clark, and Jonathan Dayton; Pennsylvania—Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris, George Clymer, Jared Ingersoll, Thomas Fitzsimons, James Wilson, Gouverneur Morris, and Benjamin Franklin; Delaware—George Read, Gunning Bedford, Jr., John Di<
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Jay, John 1817-1894 (search)
conspiracy and England's neutrality; Caste and slavery in the American Church; America free, or America slave, etc. He died in New York City, May 5, 1894. Statesman; born in New York City, Dec. 12, 1745; was of Huguenot descent. Graduated at King's College (now Columbia University) in 1764, he was admitted to the bar in 1768, and formed a partnership with Robert R. Livingston. In 1774 he was a delegate in the first Continental Congress, and the same year he married a daughter of William Livingston, of New Jersey. In that Congress, though the youngest member but one, he took a conspicuous part, being the author of the Address to the people of Great Britain. His facile pen was often employed in framing documents in the Congress of 1775. Early in 1776 he left Congress and engaged in the public affairs of his own State, being a leading member of the Provincial Congress in 1776. He wrote the able address of the convention at Fishkill in December, 1776; reported a bill of rights t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Livingston, Henry Brockholst 1757-1823 (search)
Livingston, Henry Brockholst 1757-1823 Jurist; born in New York City, Nov. 26, 1757; son of Gov. William Livingston, of New Jersey; was attached to the staff of General Schuyler in 1776, and afterwards to that of General Arnold, and was a participant in the capture of Burgoyne. He was promoted to colonel. In 1779 he accompanied John Jay to the Spanish Court as his private secretary, and on his return he studied law, and became eminent in his profession. In January, 1802, he was made judge of the Supreme Court of New York. He died in Washington, March 19, 1823.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Livingston, William 1723-1790 (search)
Livingston, William 1723-1790 Governor; born in Albany, N. Y., Nov. 30, 1723; was an eminent member of the bar of both New York and New Jersey. With William William Livingston. Smith he publiWilliam Livingston. Smith he published the first Digest of the colonial laws, in 1752. For a while he published the Independent Reflector. Thoroughly educated at Yale College, he possessed many solid as well as brilliant attainments in law and literature, and was an elegant and facile writer. Behind the mask of anonymity, Mr. Livingston dealt heavy blows in favor of Presbyterianism, and against Episcopacy, in his weekly periodiJersey, with the commission of brigadier-general. After William Franklin was deposed in 1776, Livingston succeeded him as governor of New Jersey, which post he retained until his death, conducting puwas tall and thin in person), and tried hard to catch him, but he always managed to escape. Mr. Livingston was a delegate from New Jersey in the convention which framed the national Constitution. He
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Louisiana, (search)
sion of Louisiana. Bonaparte had formed a plan for taking immediate possession of New Orleans by an armed expedition. Livingston, the American minister in France, advised his government of this expedition, and declared that it would not only oppresthe plan of Genet and his successors in corrupting the Western people and dismembering the Union. Before the letter of Livingston had been received, the Spanish intendant at New Orleans, as if anticipating the wishes of Bonaparte, had issued a proclttention. President Jefferson, alive to the interests, independence, and power of his country, wrote an able letter to Livingston, suggesting that France might be willing to cede a portion of Louisiana, especially the island of New Orleans, to the ove all cause for irritation between the two governments. Negotiations with this end in view were speedily made by Mr. Livingston, assisted by Mr. Monroe. Their instructions asked for the cession of the island of New Orleans and the Floridas, and
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), New Jersey, (search)
of Benjamin Franklin, was the last of the royal governors of New Jersey (see Franklin, William). A conditional State constitution was adopted in the Provincial Congress at Burlington, July 2, 1776, and a State government was organized with William Livingston as governor. After the battle of Princeton and the retreat of the British to New Brunswick, detachments of American militia were very active in the Jerseys. Four days after that event nearly fifty Waldeckers (Germans) were killed, woundMorris1738 John Hamilton, president,1746 John Reading, president1746 Jonathan Belcher1747 John Reading, president 1757 Francis Bernard1758 Thomas Boone 1760 Josiah Hardy1761 William Franklin1763 State governors. Assumes office. William Livingston 1776 William Patterson 1790 Richard Howell1794 Joseph Bloomfield 1801 John Lambert, acting 1802 Joseph Bloomfield1803 Aaron Ogden1812 William S. Pennington 1813 Mahlon Dickerson1815 Isaac H. Williamson1817 Peter D. Vroom1829 Samu
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), State of Pennsylvania, (search)
pt an appointment from Delaware as a delegate in Congress. The State of Maryland also showed a willingness at this juncture to renounce the Declaration of Independence for the sake of peace. Amid this falling away of civilians and the rapid melting of his army, Washington's faith and courage never faltered. From Newark, when he was flying with his shattered and rapidly diminishing forces towards the Delaware River before pursuing Cornwallis, he applied to the patriotic and energetic William Livingston, governor of New Jersey, for aid. To expressions of sympathy from the governor he replied (Nov. 30, 1776), I will not despair. Early in 1799 an insurrection broke out due to a singular cause. A direct tax had been levied, among other things, on houses, arranged in classes. A means for making that classification was by measuring windows. The German inhabitants of Northampton, Bucks, and Montgomery counties made such violent opposition to this measurement that those engaged in it
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Pettit, Charles 1736-1806 (search)
Pettit, Charles 1736-1806 Legislator; born in Amwell, N. J., in 1736; admitted to the bar in 1770; appointed secretary to Governor Franklin of New Jersey in 1772; was also secretary to Governor Livingston, Franklin's successor. He served as quartermaster during the War of the Revolution. He was elected to Congress in 1785, and was instrumental in obtaining Pennsylvania's adoption of the United States Constitution. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 4, 1806.
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