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ronger powder used in fire-arms; but the tendency now is toward the use of substances of far greater rapidity of ignition, and greater expansion in the act of assuming the gaseous state, than even the strongest gunpowder. Among more than thirty patented compositions for blasting powder are the following ingredients. The specific combination in each case might be given would space permit. 1. Forms of carbon: — Burnt cork.Gambier. Charcoal.Brown coal. Lycopodium.Peat. White sugar.Logwood. Sawdust.Bark. Horse-dung.Carbolic acid. Starch of flour.Aloes. Petroleum products.Paraffine. Cutch.Fatty matters. Tannin.Resins. 2. Metallic salts, etc.:— Chl. potash.Carbonate of soda. Red sulph. arsenic.Nitrate of lead. Ferro-cyan. potassium.Ammoniacal salts. Nitrate of potassa.Nitrate of soda. Sulphur.Carbazotate of potash. Chloride of sodium.Azotate of potash. Cyanuret of zinc.Nitrate of iron. Barilla.Nitric acid. Blast′ing-tools. Baron Liebhaber of Paris <
of sulphuric acid. The following table shows the first recorded use in making gunpowder of the ingredients stated. Charcoal, sulphur, and nitrate of potassaTime immemorial. Bituminous coal1838 Bark (morus)1855 Peat1856 Cork (burned)1856 Lycopodium1856 Horse-dung1856 Sawdust1856 Sugar1856 Tan1858 Starch1858 Flour1858 Bran1858 Gum1859 Cannel coal1861 Caoutchouc1863 Dextrine1864 Petroleum products1864 Lamp-black1865 Cutch and gambier1866 Grahamite1869 Paraffine1869 Logwood1869 Carbolic acid1869 Tannin1869 Aloes1869 Fats and oils1871 Lime1861 Phosphorus1864 Bisulphide carbon1863 Ferro-cyan. of potassa1850 Chlorate of potassa1850 Carbonate of potassa1859 Bichromate of potassa1864 Carbazotate of potassa1868 Azotate of potassa1868 Chloride of sodium1856 Nitrate of sodium1857 Sulphate of sodium1862 Potasso-tartrate of sodium1864 Barilla1864 Carbonate of sodium1864 Chlorate of lead1862 Red sulphate of arsenic1850 Sulphate of magnesia1862 Nit
laced in steam-boilers to retain the mineral particles in suspension, or to prevent their adherence to the boiler, it may be stated that they consist of — Acids, —Lime-paint.    Acetic.Linseed-cake.    Hydrochloric.Linseed-oil.    Muriatic.Logwood.    Nitric.Malt.    Oxalic.Meal. Alkalies.Metal in strips or scraps. Ammoniacal salts.Molasses. Animal fats, —Moss.    Marrow, etc.Mucilage. Arsenical salts.Muriates in variety. Ashes.Nutgalls. Barks in great variety GroundOak-bark and s found in an inkstand at Herculaneum. Some ancient manuscripts show the ink in relief when held to the light, and some have evidently been corroded by the ink. Black ink is a solution of tanno-gallate of iron suspended in gum-arabic water. Logwood adds to the color. Take bruised galls, 6 ounces; gum-arabic, 4 ounces; green vitriol, 4 ounces; soft water, 6 pints. Boil the galls in the water, add the other ingredients; keep in a bottle, shake occasionally, and in two mont
immersion in lime-water and solution of copperas the indigo is dissolved and fixed in the spots where so applied by similar chemical reactions. In the discharge process, employed for black and white, or red or chocolate and white, the cloth is passed through red or iron liquor, dried, and dipped in a mordant, — this is termed padding; it is then printed with citric acid, thickened with wasted starch, which discharges the mordant, so that when dyed the discharged figures are left white. Logwood is used for black, and madder for red and chocolate. Re-sist′ance-box. (Telegraphy.) An inclosingbox for a resistance-coil. Re-sist′ance-coil. (Telegraphy.) A coil introduced into a circuit to increase the resistance. It has normally a greater resistance than the remainder of the circuit. It is usually of a material of a less conducting power than the main circuit, say of German silver in a circuit of copper. See rheostat. Res′o-nator. An instrument invented b
ss, American.553 Dogwood.756–.852 Ebony, Indian1.209 Ebony, American1.331 Elder.695 Elm.671 Elm, American.723–.775 Fir, Norway.512 Fir, Oregon, yellow.559–.630 Fir, Oregon, red.462 Fir, Oregon, white.468 Gum, black.615 Gum, blue.843 Gum, water1.000 Hackmatack.590 Hawthorn.910 Hazel.606–.860 Hemlock.368–.453 Hickory.826–.992 Holly.760 Holly, American.641 Juniper.556 Lancewood.720 Larch.544–.560 Lemon.703 Lignum-vitae1.257-1.333 Lime.804 Linden.604 Locust.728–.826 Logwood.913 Mahogany.720-1.063 Mahogany, San Domingo.727 Mahogany, Honduras.560 Maple.681–.755 Maple, bird's-eye.576 Maple, Oregon.491 Mulberry.897 Oak, African.823 Oak, Canadian.872 Oak, Dantzic.759 Oak, English.932 Oak, white.632–.882 Oak, live1.021-1.103 Olive.927 Orange.705 Pear.661 Persimmon.710 Pine, pitch1.080 Pine, red.590 Pine, white.360–.461 Pine, yellow.528–.672 Plum.785 Poplar.432–.498 Poplar, white Spanish.529 Quince.705 Redwood, Cal.387 Ro
arothammus scoparius, and Genista tinctoriaEuropeUsed in dyeing yellow. For tanning, and for house brooms. BuckthornRhamnus (numerous)Europe, etcAffords dyeing materials. Sap green from the berry, and yellow from the bark. Campeachy wood(See Logwood.) CamwoodBaphia nitidaW. AfricaCalled also barwood. Affords the red dye used for English bandana handkerchiefs. CatechuAcacia catechuE. IndiesA resin-like extract obtained from the bark, wood, and leaves. Used in dyeing and tanning. The leaanora rocella, etcCool climatesMany genera and species give dyes; as cudbear, litmus, orchil, etc. LitmusRocella tinctoriaCanaries, S. Europe, etcA lichen used to give a purple dye to silks. Used in chemistry as a test for alkalies and acids. LogwoodHaematoxylon campechianumCentral AmericaUsed in dying rod and black colors, shades of purple, etc. Called also campeachy wood. Lombardy poplarPopulus dilatataFor tanning. In parts a fragrant smell to the leather, similar to that of Russia leath
me of Tree.Botanical Name.Native Place, or where chiefly grown.Qualities, Uses, etc. Lignum vitaeGuiacum sanctumS. FloridaHard, dark. Turnery and ornamental. LimeTilia europaeaEuropeClose-grained. Carving, hoops, turnery, etc. Linden (Linn, bass-woodTilia americanaEastern U. S.Soft, white, flexible. LocustHymenaea courbarilW. IndiesHard. Timber for steam-engine frames, tree-nails, etc. LocustRobinia pseudacaciaEast of Miss. RiverTough and durable. Posts, tree-nails, turnery, hubs. LogwoodHacmatoxylon campechianumJamaica, HondurasDyeing. MahoganySuretema mahagoniCentral America, CubaHard. Furniture, cabinet-work, turnery, etc. Mahogany (mountain)Cereocarpus ledifoliusRocky MountainsHard, dark-red. Ornamental. MangroveVariousTropicsCabinet-making, shipbuilding. Maple (black)Acer nigrumEastern U. S.Same as saccharinum. Maple (red)Acer rubrumEastern U. S.Soft, and less useful. Maple (sugar)Acer saccharinumEastern U. S.Hard, white. Sugar, carving, gun-stocks, framing-tim