ronger powder used in fire-arms; but the tendency now is toward the use of substances of far greater rapidity of ignition, and greater expansion in the act of assuming the gaseous state, than even the strongest gunpowder.
Among more than thirty patented compositions for blasting powder are the following ingredients.
The specific combination in each case might be given would space permit.
1. Forms of carbon: —
Starch of flour.Aloes.
2. Metallic salts, etc.:—
potash.Carbonate of soda.
arsenic.Nitrate of lead.
Nitrate of potassa.Nitrate of soda.
Sulphur.Carbazotate of potash.
Chloride of sodium.Azotate of potash.
Cyanuret of zinc.Nitrate of iron.
Baron Liebhaber of Paris <
of sulphuric acid.
The following table shows the first recorded use in making gunpowder of the ingredients stated.
Charcoal, sulphur, and nitrate of potassaTime immemorial.
Cutch and gambier1866
Fats and oils1871
Chlorate of potassa1850
Carbonate of potassa1859
Bichromate of potassa1864
Carbazotate of potassa1868
Azotate of potassa1868
Chloride of sodium1856
Nitrate of sodium1857
Sulphate of sodium1862
Potasso-tartrate of sodium1864
Carbonate of sodium1864
Chlorate of lead1862
Red sulphate of arsenic1850
Sulphate of magnesia1862
laced in steam-boilers to retain the mineral particles in suspension, or to prevent their adherence to the boiler, it may be stated that they consist of —
Alkalies.Metal in strips or scraps.
Animal fats, —Moss.
Arsenical salts.Muriates in variety.
Barks in great variety GroundOak-bark and s found in an inkstand at Herculaneum.
Some ancient manuscripts show the ink in relief when held to the light, and some have evidently been corroded by the ink.
Black ink is a solution of tanno-gallate of iron suspended in gum-arabic water.
Logwood adds to the color.
Take bruised galls, 6 ounces; gum-arabic, 4 ounces; green vitriol, 4 ounces; soft water, 6 pints.
Boil the galls in the water, add the other ingredients; keep in a bottle, shake occasionally, and in two mont
immersion in lime-water and solution of copperas the indigo is dissolved and fixed in the spots where so applied by similar chemical reactions.
In the discharge process, employed for black and white, or red or chocolate and white, the cloth is passed through red or iron liquor, dried, and dipped in a mordant, — this is termed padding; it is then printed with citric acid, thickened with wasted starch, which discharges the mordant, so that when dyed the discharged figures are left white.
Logwood is used for black, and madder for red and chocolate.
（Telegraphy.) An inclosingbox for a resistance-coil.
（Telegraphy.) A coil introduced into a circuit to increase the resistance.
It has normally a greater resistance than the remainder of the circuit.
It is usually of a material of a less conducting power than the main circuit, say of German silver in a circuit of copper.
An instrument invented b
arothammus scoparius, and Genista tinctoriaEuropeUsed in dyeing yellow.
For tanning, and for house brooms.
BuckthornRhamnus (numerous)Europe, etcAffords dyeing materials.
Sap green from the berry, and yellow from the bark.
Campeachy wood(See Logwood.)
CamwoodBaphia nitidaW. AfricaCalled also barwood.
Affords the red dye used for English bandana handkerchiefs.
CatechuAcacia catechuE. IndiesA resin-like extract obtained from the bark, wood, and leaves.
Used in dyeing and tanning.
The leaanora rocella, etcCool climatesMany genera and species give dyes; as cudbear, litmus, orchil, etc.
LitmusRocella tinctoriaCanaries, S. Europe, etcA lichen used to give a purple dye to silks.
Used in chemistry as a test for alkalies and acids.
LogwoodHaematoxylon campechianumCentral AmericaUsed in dying rod and black colors, shades of purple, etc. Called also campeachy wood.
Lombardy poplarPopulus dilatataFor tanning.
In parts a fragrant smell to the leather, similar to that of Russia leath
me of Tree.Botanical Name.Native Place, or where chiefly grown.Qualities, Uses, etc.
Lignum vitaeGuiacum sanctumS. FloridaHard, dark.
Turnery and ornamental.
Carving, hoops, turnery, etc.
Linden (Linn, bass-woodTilia americanaEastern U. S.Soft, white, flexible.
LocustHymenaea courbarilW. IndiesHard.
Timber for steam-engine frames, tree-nails, etc.
LocustRobinia pseudacaciaEast of Miss. RiverTough and durable.
Posts, tree-nails, turnery, hubs.
LogwoodHacmatoxylon campechianumJamaica, HondurasDyeing.
MahoganySuretema mahagoniCentral America, CubaHard.
Furniture, cabinet-work, turnery, etc.
Mahogany (mountain)Cereocarpus ledifoliusRocky MountainsHard, dark-red.
Maple (black)Acer nigrumEastern U. S.Same as saccharinum.
Maple (red)Acer rubrumEastern U. S.Soft, and less useful.
Maple (sugar)Acer saccharinumEastern U. S.Hard, white.
Sugar, carving, gun-stocks, framing-tim