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primary idea was to force the gas through the liquid. Carburetors of gas may be defined as those in which material rich in carbon is added to the usual charge of coal in the retort. Those in which a liquid hydrocarbon is evaporated by the heat of the burner, and mingles with the usual carbureted hydrogen gas. Those in which the gas is exposed at atmospheric temperature to the liquid hydrocarbon, so as to exhale from the latter a vapor which passes with the usual gas to the burner. Lowe, in England (English patent 6,276, June 9, 1832), was for enriching the commercial carbureted hydrogen by filling the meter with coal-tar naphtha instead of water, the meter-wheel being driven by the force of the gas from the main. The uniform hight of the liquid in the meter was secured by a fountain arrangement such as is used in lamps, inkstands, mucilage-cups, and bird-glasses. He subsequently applied (No. 8,883 of March 16, 1841) power to turn the meter-wheel. He also proposed to pass
ing pump into which water is injected on that side of the piston on which condensation is taking place. The condensed air passes through a worm surrounded by cold water to a reservoir, whence it is admitted to an auxiliary pump driven by the expansion of the compressed air, in which it is expanded, cooling a non-congealable fluid in a jacket surrounding the pump-cylinder. This abstracts the heat from the water contained in a reservoir in a chamber above the pump, causing its congelation. Lowe uses carbonic-acid gas compressed into a liquid state. The apparatus consists of a gas-holder, a pump, a cooler, a dryer filled with chloride of calcium, a condensing coil placed in a tank and surrounded by water, and an expansion or congealing chamber in which are placed the receptacles containing the water to be frozen. The gas is admitted to the pump, where it is liquefied. The heat thus generated is absorbed by the cooler, and the gas is allowed to expand into the refrigerator, where i
spring, screwed fast to the packing-ring at its midlength. Steam-pistons, with different modes of packing. d d′ is Lowe's, 1866, which has a beveled spiral spring, inclosed between a head and follower, and expanding the rings. d′ shows the raighten the tube, whose ends are connected to a sector-rack, which operates an indicator in the manner just described. Lowe's pressure-gage. f. In the piston-gage the steam acts upon the surface of a disk within a cylinder. The piston-rod isnst the steam-pressure, the amount of which is indicated in the usual way. This is the principle of Watt's indicator. Lowe's steam-gage consists of a tube a having a small hole through which steam is admitted to the interior of the receiver b, rm of Ashcroft's well-known gage has two graduated circles, one representing the pressure and the other the temperature. Lowe's pressure-gage. Shaw's pressure-gage (Fig. 3943) consists of a brass cup a containing an iron disk b recessed on its