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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 10 0 Browse Search
Francis Jackson Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879; the story of his life told by his children: volume 4 4 0 Browse Search
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y within the furnace. The time and other circumstances determine the depth of the effect; thin pieces become malleable entirely through, admit of being readily bent, and may be slightly forged; thicker pieces retain a central portion of cast-iron, but in a softened state, and not so brittle as at first. On sawing them through, the exterior coat of soft metal is perfectly distinguishable from the remainder. The inventor of the process of rendering articles of cast-iron malleable was Samuel Lucas of Sheffield, by whom it was patented in 1804. As described in his specification, his process was nearly identical with that above described, except that the castings were placed directly in the furnace, instead of being inclosed in boxes. The Siemens regenerative gas furnace is largely used in England now for heating the annealing-oven in which the crucibles containing the cast-iron articles are placed. As arranged for this purpose, the furnace has four longitudinal main flues d
rom 1 to 6, and the variations readily admit of the letters, accented vowels, diphthongs, punctuation marks, numerals, etc. Other arbitrary systems are those of Lucas, Frere, Moon, and Carton. Lucas's, claimed to be the least difficult to learn of the English systems, and peculiarly adapted for those who are deficient in delicaLucas's, claimed to be the least difficult to learn of the English systems, and peculiarly adapted for those who are deficient in delicacy of touch, uses many abbreviations of words and syllables, and is bulky, thirty-six volumes being required to contain the Scriptures, which, in the Boston alphabet, fill but eight. Frere's is a phonetic system; in this the Scriptures are embraced in fifteen volumes. Moon's system, the invention of a blind man, is based on those of Lucas and Frere, resembling the latter in the lines being alternately read from left to right and from right to left, from a supposed motive of convenience. The letters are each formed of one or two lines only, by using nine forms turned in different directions. Few abbreviations are employed. Carton's system resembles
med in America, or paddy, its name in the East Indies, has an outer husk, and a thin cuticle which adheres to the pearly grain with great tenacity. The old method of removing the hulls of rice was by pounding in mortars. These were made of pitch-pine and held about a bushel. The work was performed by the slaves of South Carolina and Georgia in addition to the day's work, a certain amount of hulling being performed by each before regular work and after it. Machinery was constructed by Lucas, about 1780-90, which was driven by tidepower, and operated iron-shod pestles in cast-iron mortars of the capacity of five bushels each. Steam-power was subsequently introduced. Fig. 4315 is an example of the application of machinery to the pestle and mortar huller. The grain, after a rough preliminary, grinding between stones, is passed to the mortar, and is beaten by the ribbed pestle From the mortar it passes to a horizontal cylindrical chamber having wire gauze at the sides, and con
Francis Jackson Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879; the story of his life told by his children: volume 4, Chapter 2: the hour and the man.—1862. (search)
ancipation Committee, a little band of Mr. Garrison's friends who had for several years labored to excite public interest in the American antislavery movement, and to maintain the active alliance and cooperation established and fostered by him in his three visits to England. Thompson himself was the chairman, and his son-in-law, Frederick W. Chesson, the secretary, of this Committee. The enlarged Society included such men as John Stuart Mill, John Bright, Richard Cobden, Lord Houghton, Samuel Lucas, William E. Forster, Peter A. Taylor, Goldwin Smith, Justin McCarthy, Thomas Hughes, James Stansfeld, Jr., Prof. J. E. Cairnes, Herbert Spencer, Prof. Francis W. Newman, Rev. Baptist Noel, and Rev. Newman Hall, most of whom rendered direct and important service; but the organizer and tireless spirit of the movement was Mr. Chesson, to whose wide acquaintance with public men, unfailing tact and address, thorough information, and extraordinary industry and executive ability, a very large me
Francis Jackson Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879; the story of his life told by his children: volume 4, Chapter 3: the Proclamation.—1863. (search)
ix weeks, to express sympathy with the anti-slavery policy of the American Government, indicate what is the true state of public feeling on this side of the Atlantic. We have endured the misrepresentations of certain organs of our press too long, and we have now determined to endure them no longer. But always remember that, from the beginning, the best of our journals have remained true to the anti-slavery cause; that the Star, Daily News, The chief proprietor of the Morning Star was Samuel Lucas, a brother-inlaw of John Bright; its editors, Justin McCarthy and F. W. Chesson. The Daily News was edited by Thomas Walker, with the powerful aid of Harriet Martineau, who wrote scores of editorials on the American question. Westminster Review, Spectator, Nonconformist, British Standard, Dial, Birmingham Post, The Birmingham Post published an instructive series of letters on the American question from the pen of Mr. Samuel A. Goddard, an American gentleman long resident in that city,