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H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 15: military Education—Military schools of France, Prussia, Austria, Russia, England, &c.—Washington's reasons for establishing the West point Academy.—Rules of appointment and Promotion in foreign Services.—Absurdity and injustice of our own system. (search)
knowledge requisite for directing the blow, but he must also have the military energy necessary for striking that blow, and the military activity necessary for parrying the attacks of the enemy. A rapid coup d'oeil, prompt decision, active movements, are as indispensable as sound judgment; for the general must see, and decide, and act, all in the same instant, Accordingly we find that most great generals of ancient and modern times have gained their laurels while still young. Philip of Macedon ascended the throne at the age of twenty-two, and soon distinguished himself in his wars with the neighboring states. At the age of forty-five h had conquered all Greece. He died at forty-seven. Alexander the Great had defeated the celebrated The-ban band at the battle of Cheronea, and gained a military reputation at the age of eighteen. He ascended the throne of his father Philip before twenty, and at twenty-five had reached the zenith of his military glory, having already conquered
Charles Congdon, Tribune Essays: Leading Articles Contributing to the New York Tribune from 1857 to 1863. (ed. Horace Greeley), Alexander the Bouncer. (search)
Alexander the Bouncer. all great men have their weak side. Alexander of Macedon was given to grog. Alexander, of Georgia, V. P. C. S., is given to gammon. His weakness is to say the thing that is not --this being the periphrastical way in which Dean Swift's fastidious Houyhnhnms always spoke of falsehood and of falsifiers. The Hon. Y. P. Alex. Ham. Stephens upon arriving at Atlanta, Ga., was received by a large crowd; and in return he ungratefully made a speech calculated largely to delude the large crowd, and considerably to lower himself in the estimation of old-fashioned folk with a prejudice in favor of the truth. From a great variety of mendacities, we select, the following as being, to use the words of Goldsmith, the damnable bounce of the occasion. A threatening war is upon us, made by those who have no regard for right. We fight for our homes! They for money. The hirelings and mercenaries of the North are all hand and hand against you. Now, Stephens, what d
of the Levant. The term is now antiquated. Ari-es. The battering-ram, so called because the metallic head of the beam was sometimes fashioned like the head of a ram. As a means of battering walls it is said to have been invented by Artemanes of Calzomene, a Greek architect, about 441 B. C. It is described by Josephus, who states that it was sometimes supported on the shoulders of men who advanced on a run; at other times it was slung from a frame, and operated by ropes. Philip of Macedon is said to have been the first to place the frame on wheels, at the siege of Byzantium. Plutarch informs us that Marc Antony, in the Parthian war, made use of an aries 80 feet long. Vitruvius says they were sometimes 106 to 120 feet in length. A-rith-mom′e-ter. An instrument for assisting in calculating. The most ancient form is the Abacus (which see). This has a series of wires, the balls on which represent units, tens, hundreds, etc., and is used by sliding the balls on the wire,
is of great antiquity. Plato credits Apollo with the invention. Ishmael became an archer (Gen. XXI. 20). The Philistine archers overcame Saul (1 Sam. XXXI. 3). David commanded it to be taught (2 Sam. i. 18). Aster of Amphipolis shot Philip of Macedon, and was hanged therefor. An ancient Egyptian bow is preserved in the Abbott Museum, New York, together with the leather case that contained it and fastened it to the war-chariot. Four arrows, made of reed and tipped with flint-stone, are susp in milk and honey before eating. Vinegar, to soak the bread, was a regular ration with the Roman soldiery. It is much older than that, however: Boaz said unto Ruth, Eat of thy bread, and dip thy morsel in the vinegar. After the conquest of Macedon, 148 B. C., Greek bakers came to Rome and monopolized the business. Loaves of bread, or their pseudomorphs, are found in the excavations of Pompeii, partially buried A. D. 79. Bread was made with yeast by the English bakers in 1634. Was mad
governor of Egypt under the Persians, for which act he was condemned to death. Silver is said to have been coined by Phedon of Argos, 750 B. C. Gold by Philip of Macedon, 340 B. C. Servius Tullius coined copper money, 578 B. C. Silver was coined at Athens, 512 B. C.; at Rome, 269 B. C. Iron was coined by Lycurgus, 884 B. C. Plutarch says it required a cart and two oxen to draw the small sum of 10 minae, about $28. It is said that the coin of Philip of Macedon was the first that was alloyed; it was done to harden it, and make it wear better. Coined money was first cited in those portions of the Hebrew Scriptures written after the captivity. The Jews t had fallen to 96 grains in the time of Heliogabalus, A. D. 218. The silver coinage of Crotona, 600 B. C., was pure, as was also the gold coinage of Philip of Macedon, 350 B. C. Under Vespasian, A. D. 79, the silver money contained one fourth its weight of copper. Under Antoninus Pius, A. D. 138, more than one third. Under Co
re so baked that they would hardly decay, and were, in this respect, very different from the Persians, who protected their heads and kept them so soft that they soon rotted. He observed it, he says, on an old field of battle in Egypt; the former were as hard as a brick, and the latter decayed. The broad-brim hat (causia) was worn by the Macedonian kings. It is said by Smith (Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities) to have been made of felt. It is shown on a medal of Alexander I. of Macedon. It was adopted by the Romans, especially Caracalla. In the accompanying cut are shown some of the forms which the ancient felt hat assumed. The pileus (Latin) was the common felt cap, the fess of the modern Greeks, the fez of the Turks. The petasus (Greek) was a hat; it had a brim; its name, in fact, comes from a word whose root meaning is extension, dilation. a is from a sepulchral bas-relief in Boeotia. b is a fisherman's cap, from a statue in the Townley collection, British
er bark of a tree) does the use of the bark itself. Hence also our words library, librarian, etc. Pliny indorses the statement of Varro that the discovery of the use of the papyrus was an incident in the victorious expedition of Alexander of Macedon; this was not correct, but no doubt the expedition contributed to introduce the papyrus to the nations of the West. Egyptian tombs show that it was used many ages before the time of Alexander, and, indeed, long prior to any authentic historicalown as Buddha, the Enlightened, who raised his protest against Brahmanic intolerance on the plains of Nepal some twenty-four centuries since. The formula is from the Sanscrit, which had ceased to be a spoken language in the time of Alexander of Macedon. Its metaphor has been diligently resolved by Klaproth, and, being rendered into English, it means, O that I may attain perfection and be absorbed in Buddha! Amen. The invading hosts of the Chaldeans left their pictured records on the rocks
ndulum. More frequently called a rock-shaft (which see). Rock′et. 1. A cylindrical tube of paper or metal filled with a compressed mixture of niter, sulphur, and charcoal, which, on being ignited, propels it forward by the action of the liberated gases against the atmosphere. Rockets have been known in China and India from time immemorial, and have long been employed for war purposes. It seems probable, from the accounts, that they were employed against the forces of Alexander of Macedon at the farthest point of his Eastern advance. The first European author by whom they are mentioned is Marcus Graecus, who, writing in the eighth century, says that if a compound of niter, sulphur, and charcoal be tightly rammed into a long narrow tube and set fire to, the tube will fly through the air. They appear to have been employed against the Crusaders by the Saracens, and were probably first introduced by the former into Western Europe. War-rockets were used by the Venetians in
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Olde Cambridge, Chapter 4: Longfellow (search)
Chapter 4: Longfellow Unlike Holmes and Lowell, Longfellow was not born in a college town; but he went at fifteen to live in one, and that a very characteristic one, not differing essentially in its traditions from that in which he spent his later life, although all the academic associations at Bowdoin College were on a smaller scale than at Harvard. As Fluellen says in Henry V. that there is a river in Macedon and a river in Monmouth and there are salmons in both, so it may be said that Brunswick has somewhat the same relation to the Androscoggin that Cambridge bears to the Charles; and the open sea is within a few hours' sail from each, so that there were, or might have been at some period, salmons in both. Each town had then broad country roads shaded by elm trees, and each still has large colonial houses, in two at least of which — both yet standing — Longfellow lived at different times. In each town the college buildings were of red brick,--the Muses' factories as Lowe
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Cheerful Yesterdays, Index. (search)
27. Parkman, Francis, 69, 183. Parsons, Charles, 13, 24, 400. Parsons, Theophilus, 122. Parton, James, 301. Paul, Apostle, 217. Peabody, A. P., 5, 53, 63. Peabody, Elizabeth, 86, 87, 173. Peirce, Benjamin, 17, 49, 50, 51, 52. Pericles, 112. period of the Newness, the, Perkins, C. C., 20, 66, 124. Perkins, H. C., 194. Perkins, S. G., 80, 81, 124. Perkins, S. H., 79, 80, 83, 84. Perkins, T. H., 80. Perry, Mrs., 315. Peter, Mrs., 17. Petrarca Francisco, 76. Philip of Macedon, 126, 131. Phillips & Sampson, 176. Phillips, W. A., 207. Phillips, Wendell, 53, 97, 121, 145, 148, 149, 150, 159, 240. 242, 243, 244, 297, 327, 328, 329, 333, 357. Pickering, Arthur, 85. Pierce, A. L., 125. Pierce, John, 45. Pike, Mr., 233. Pillsbury, Parker, 327. Pinckney, C. C., 13. Plato, 1010x, 158, 18&. Plunkett, Sergeant, 345. Plutarch, 5, 57, 171. Pollock, Sir, Frederick, 280, 281, 297. Pollock, Lady 280, 292. Pope, Alexander, I, 5. Pottawatomie Massacre, T
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