Spaniards, in 1510.
Before this time the people, both men and women, wore close woolen caps; originally of cloth and afterwards knit.
Knitting is quite a modern art.
Two centuries since, hats were customarily worn indoors.
Home to bed; having got a strange cold in my head, by flinging off my hat at a dinner, and sitting with the wind in my neck. — Pepys's Diary, September 22, 1664.
Home to supper, having a great cold, got on Sunday last, by sitting too long with my head bare, for Mercer [his wife's maid] to comb [his hair?] and wash my ears. — Ibid., January 25, 1664.
This day Mr. Hoblen sent me a bever, which cost me £ 45 s. — Ibid., 1641.
In Lord Clarendon's essay on the decay of respect paid to age, he says that in his younger days he never kept on his hat before those older than himself, except at dinner.
Hats, besides those of straw and similar material, are made of fur, principally that of the Russian hare or coney, mixed with a small proportion of wool or co
s rail, on high standard.
y′, Greave's pot-sleeper.
z′, Reynold's continuous bearing.
a′, Stephenson's chair and rail.
b′, Adams's rail.
c′, Button's rail, with steel top.
d′, Brooks's steel-capped rail.
e′, Lewis's rail.
f′, Hanmer and Grim's steel-topped rail.
g′, Hagan's rail
h′, Chamber's rail, on elastic webs.
i′, Robinson's double rail.
j′, Pierce's rail.
k′, Peckham's rail.
l′, Perkins's rail.
m′, Shephard's steel-top rail.
n′, Day and Mercer's rail.
o′, Dwight's rail.
p′, Zahn's rail.
q′, Johnston's rail.
r′, Stephens and Jenkins's rail.
s′, Sanborn's tubular rail.
t′, Sanborn's rail.
u′, Angle's L-rail on continuous sleeper.
v′, Dean and Coleman's street-car rail.
w′, rail and sleeper, for the East Indies.
The sleeper is bent from a plate of wroughtiron to resist the attacks of insects which destroy wooden sleepers.
Parkin's vitrified sleeper, patented in
d, and salted water from the reservoir e descends through the pipes i i into the tanks, playing in jets against both sides of the plate; a pump f returns the water from the lower reservoir to the upper one, in order that it may be used again.
Mercer and Hinton's machine for tempering saw-plates.
In Mercer and Hinton's machine (Fig. 6288) for tempering saw-plates, the plate is clamped between two perforated plates, strengthened by ribs b2 b3, forming a carriage which runs on rails down inMercer and Hinton's machine (Fig. 6288) for tempering saw-plates, the plate is clamped between two perforated plates, strengthened by ribs b2 b3, forming a carriage which runs on rails down into the bath A. The carriage is raised or lowered by means of a rope or chain passing around pulleys and operated by a winch.
In Crossman's machine for tempering scythe-blades, the blade, after being properly heated, is placed between two jaws, which are forced together by depressing a treadle, clamping the blade, and at the same time immersing it in a tank beneath.
A device for inking and tempering clay for making brick, etc. The wheel is of cast-