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ical of formic acid). Its discovery is claimed by Soubeiran, Guthrie, and Liebig, whose claims have about an even date, 1831. The verdict seems to have settled in favor of the former. Its first use as an anaesthetic was by Dr. Simpson of Edinburgh, 1847. Hydrate of chloral has recently become quite unpleasantly prominent in the list of anodynes, sedatives, and hypnotics. Ether was known to the earliest chemists. The discovery of its use as an anaesthetic was made by Dr. Jackson or Dr. Morton of Boston, in 1846. A contest ensued between the parties to prove priority, and was much debated in the scientific journals of the day. In an application to Congress for a remunerative appropriation of $100,000, the rep- resentatives of Dr. Wells came in with a claim to the first invention. The enterprise failed, but mankind owes a debt of gratitude to each. Amylene is a colorless liquid obtained by distilling fusel oil with chloride of zinc. It was discovered by M. Balard, of Paris
er of the lapidary. It consists of a clamp which moves horizontally, having its bearings on a vertical post rising from the bench of the lapidary. A weighted string is attached to the lever-arm, and keeps the stone constantly pressed up against the slicer. See slicer. Crane, Der′rick. A form of crane having spars for jib and post. See derrick. Crane's—bill. (Surgical.) A pair of long-nosed pinchers. Crani-om′e-ter. An instrument for measuring sizes of skulls. Dr. Morton gives the following as the average result of numerous measurements of skulls:— European87 cubic inches. Malay85 cubic inches. Negro83 cubic inches. Mongol82 cubic inches. Ancient Egyptian80 cubic inches. American79 cubic inches. Ancient Peruvian75 to 79 cubic inches. Professor Huxley says that the most capacious European skull has a capacity of 114 cubic inches; the smallest, 55 inches. Schaaffhausen finds Hindoo skulls of 46 cubic inches. Cra′ni-o-tome. A cutting i
rom the cylinder. In the example it is shown as applied to a pair of engines. The apparatus consists essentially of three concentric tubes terminating in conoidal nozzles, and opening into the hot-well or waste-water receptacle by a common and gradually widening or trumpet-shaped mouth-piece D; the inlet-tube B is in communication with the watertank from which the current of injection-water is obtained, while each of the other tubes C conveys the exhaust steam from one of the cylinders. Morton's ejector-condenser. A is a regulating-spindle for adjusting the watersupply; B, the water-inlet; C C, the exhaust passages; D, the discharge passage; E, the steaminlet; F, a self-adjusting steam-valve. In starting, steam is admitted at E, and passing along the axialpipe, issues at the nozzle, drawing with it water from cold-water pipe B, which condenses the steam from the exhaust passages C C of the respective cylinders, and has momentum enough to carry the condensed steam and itself t
alifax, England, into Scotland, about 1550, by the Regent Morton, who seems to have been enamored of the maiden's business capacity. He was beheaded thereby in 1581, — though he was not the first victim, as has been sometimes stated. The murderers of Rizzio were beheaded by it in 1566; and among its last victims was the Earl of Argyle, 1681. It is laid up as a memorial in the Museum of the Scotch Society of Antiquaries, Edinburgh. Of the Halifax machine we know but little except that Morton imported the maiden thence. Pursuing the back track, we find that the Due de Montmorenci (blue blood) was executed by a falling axe at Toulouse, 1632; that the Dutch used it in executing slaves in their colonies, and that its use was comparatively common in Germany during the Middle Ages. The Mannaiu of Italy, by which Conradin of Swabia was executed, 1268, at Naples, and Beatrice Cenci at Rome, in 1605, was of the same construction substantially. The guillotine as mentioned in Germ
. Hydraulic lifting-jack.Mash-cooler. Hydraulic main.Mash-tun. Hydraulic motor.Measuring-apparatus. Hydraulic nozzle.Measuring-faucet. Hydraulicon.Measuring-funnel. Hydraulic pivot.Measuring-pump. Hydraulic pressure-pump.Meter. Hydraulic propeller.Mill-dam. Hydraulic punch.Mineral-water apparatus. Hydraulic ram.Miser. Hydraulic shears.Miter-drain. Hydraulic slip.Miter-post. Hydraulic telegraph.Miter-sill. Hydraulic valve.Mole. Hydro-electric machine.Monte-jus. Hydro-extractor.Morton's slip. Hydrometer.Mud-boat. Hydrometric pendulum.Mud-drag. Hydrometrograph.Nautical-alarm. Hydrophore.Nautilus. Hydroscope.Needle. Hydrostat.Negative-well. Hydrostatic balance.Noria. Hydrostatic bellows.Nozzle. Hydrostatic engine.Oar. Hydrostatic jack.Oenometer. Hydrostatic lamp.Oil-feeder. Hydrostatic press.Ombrometer. Ice-apron.Organ. Hydraulic Ice-breaker.Outburst-bank. Impluvium.Outfall. Inclined plane.Overflow-basin. Invert.Paddle. Jette.Paddle-wheel. Jetty.Pannier.
ork Medical repository, and was republished in the London Monthly magazine, June 1, 1800. Chloroform was discovered by Guthrie, Souberain, or Liebig, about 1831, but its valuable properties as an anaesthetic were not appreciated until 1847. Dr. Morton of Boston, and Professor Simpson of Edinborough, discovered its applicability to this purpose almost simultaneously in 1847. See ANAeSTHETIC apparatus. Morton's inhalation apparatus, November 13, 1847, has a chamber to hold the sponge, andMorton's inhalation apparatus, November 13, 1847, has a chamber to hold the sponge, and two lateral openings through which respectively enter the atmospheric air and pass out the air impregnated with the vapor of the anaethetic agent. These openings are valved to prevent reflux of air, and a chamber above contains a reserve of liquid, which is admitted to the sponge-chamber by moving a valve, at such times as may become necessary. Roper's cup, October 10, 1848, is a vessel to hold sulphuric ether, and the rim fits closely over the mouth and nose. The body of the instrument th
igidly attached to it and placed opposite each other in a radial line. These cylinders have a common pistonrod, which is attached at its center to a crank-pin in such a manner that every revolution of the flywheel A caused by the action of the steam in the cylinders produces two revolutions of the crank. Revolving-cylinder steam-engine. The stationary disk-valve I, with ports d d′ and grooves f f, and pipes or channels c c′, control the admission and exhaust of steam. In Scott and Morton's steam-engine (Fig. 4298), the cylinder a is mounted on trunnions c d, and the piston-rod b is connected to a wrist-pin on the flywheel f. The trunnion c is journaled eccentrically in the hub of the fly-wheel, so that each revolves independently on its own axis. Previous to starting the engine, the piston is placed at half-stroke on one side of the fly-wheel center. Steam is admitted to and exhausted from the cylinder through ports in the trunnion d. e is the steam-chest. The valve m
lsonAug. 12, 1851. 9,041WilsonJune 15, 1852. 10,878CrosbyMay 9, 1854. 16,710BelcherMar. 3, 1857. 22,961MarchFeb. 15, 1859. 24,455GoodwynJune 21, 1859. 24,881MortonJuly 26, 1859. 24,937HaydenAug. 2, 1859. 25,043PrattAug. 9, 1859. 25,059TapleyAug. 9, 1859. 25,223StoddardAug. 23, 1859. 26,948JohnsonJan. 24, 1860. (Rei. 10, 1874. 147,574RobinsonFeb. 17, 1874. 147,981SargeantFeb. 24, 1874. 150,264StrongApr. 27, 1874. 151,018GaarMay 19, 1874. 151,841CassJune 9, 1874. 152,241MortonJune 23, 1874. 153,728Sloan et al.Aug. 4, 1874. 158,436PlankJan. 5, 1875. 161,624McEwenApr. 6, 1875. class I. — motors. 1. Hydraulic Engines and Water-Wh to 1/14 of the length, being about 5 inches in 6 feet. They were adapted for receiving vessels drawing 16 feet of water, which were lightened for the purpose. Morton's slip (English), patented 1818, has been put down in many of the ports of Britain. Its chief feature is in placing a complete wheel-truck underneath the bottom