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1540, discovered the Chesapeake, and made it known as the Bay of St. Mary. Under that appellation the historian Oviedo, writing a little after 1540, describes it as opening to the sea in the latitude of thirty-six degrees and forty minutes, and as including islands; of two rivers which it receives, he calls the northeastern one, Salt River; the other, the river of the Holy Ghost; the cape to the north of it, which he places in the latitude of thirty-seven degrees, he names Cape St. John. Oviedo: Hist. Gen. L. XXI. c. IX., ed. 1852, II. 146. The bay of St. Mary is marked on all Spanish maps, after the year 1549. J. G. Kohl. But as yet not a Spanish fort was erected on the Atlantic coast, not a harbor was occupied, not one settlement was begun. The first permanent establishment of the Spaniards in Florida was the result of jealous bigotry. For France had begun to settle the region with a Chap. II.} 1562 colony of Protestants; and Calvinism, which, with the special cooperati