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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 41 1 Browse Search
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. An axle or spindle of a wheel or pinion. The term is specially used in horology. b. A mandrel on which a ring, wheel, or collar is turned in a lathe. Ar-cade′. A vaulted avenue. A covered passage. A number of streets in London and Paris are thus vaulted over, and are well known to many of our citizens; the Lowther and Burlington Arcades of the former city, for instance. As one mode of connecting down-town and uptown of New York City, the arcade system has been proposed. Evenctual center of Europe in his day. The Khalif Alkamen's library was so large that its catalogue filled 40 volumes. The people of Cordova could walk paved streets at night 10 miles in a straight line, by the light of public lamps, when London and Paris were dark and dismal mud-holes. Galileo, born 1564, considered the subject of acceleration of force, and determined the relation between the spaces of descent and the times. He used inclined planes, by the aid of which he conveniently diminis
he outer end of which is struck by a blunt projection on the outer pendulum a, when the two pass each other, impressing a mark on a sheet of paper clamped to the are. See chronograph. E-lec′tro-blast′ing. Blasting by means of an electric or electro-magnetic battery, communicating through connecting wires with the charges of powder. It was first tried in blowing up the sunken hull of the Royal George, in 1839, by Colonel Pasley. In 1840 the plan was used in Boston Harbor by Captain Paris. In 1843, by Cubitt, for overthrowing a large section of Round-down Cliff, Kent, England, in making a portion of the Southeastern Railway. The mass dislodged weighed 400,000 tons. See blasting. E-lec′tro-chem′i-cal Tel′e-graph. A telegraph which records signals upon paper imbued with a chemical solution, which is discharged or caused to change color by electric action. Nicholson and Carlisle discovered, in 1800, that water was decomposed by the voltaic pile, hydrogen be
us, castor means a hat, from the beaver (castor, from a Sanscrit word meaning musk), which supplies the best material. d is a head of Daedalus, from a bas-relief in the Villa Borghese collection. This form is still worn by the shepherd boys in Asia Minor. e is a head of Ulysses, from an ancient lamp. It represents him as tied to the mast while he listens to the songs of the sirens. f is the modern Greek peasant's cap, introduced for comparison. g is from a parian marble bust of Paris, wearing the Phrygian cap, and now in the Glyptothek, Munich. h is from a coin of the Emperor Verus, now in the British Museum, and representing Armenia capta. The captive wears a plug hat. i represents Dacia in mourning, with a puddingcrown hat on. It is the obverse of one of Trajan's coins. j is from a coin of Antoninus Pius, and represents the goddess of liberty. k is from a statue of the sleeping Endymion in the Townley collection of the British Museum. l is from a bas-rel
s: — Days of Thunder per Year. 1. Calcutta averages60 2. Patna (India) supposed to average53 3. Rio Janeiro averages50.6 4. Maryland (U. S.) supposed to average41 5. Martinique averages39 6. Abyssinia supposed to average38 7. Guadaloupe averages37 8. Viviers (France) averages24.7 9. Quebec averages23.3 10. Buenos Ayres averages22.5 11. Denainvilliers (France) averages20.6 The lowest average he gives is that of Cairo in Egypt, three days of thunder per annum. That of Paris and most of the European cities is about fifteen days. He estimates the days of thunder at New York to be about the same. Lightning rods, points, and Attachements. Fig. 2954 exhibits some of the numerous variety of rods for which patents have been secured in the United States. a has a series of points formed of spiral coils combined with a tubular portion, forming the tip. The conductor is a flat strip. b, a jointed tubular conductor for vessels. It is divided at the head of th
oadstone, which possesses polarity like a magnetic needle. A magnetized needle is a piece of steel or iron to which polarity has been imparted by contact with a loadstone, or by other means. A manuscript of A. D. 1206, in the Royal Library of Paris, states that a black stone, called mariniere, was rubbed by sailors upon a needle, which was then placed on a straw set afloat in a basin of water, when the point would indicate the north. See mariner's compass. A nicely balanced piece of st. Monograms were common as distinctive marks on ancient coins, and were also used as devices on seals. Mon′o-lith. A single column or block. The term is applied to such erections as the obelisks of Egypt, some of which are now in Rome and Paris. (See obelisk.) The term monolithic is also applied to structures in which the blocks are immense , in some cases reaching from the foundation to the entablature, as in the United States Treasury, Washington. This building is said to have large
Ob-ject′ive. (Optics.) That lens or combination of lenses in a microscope or telescope which brings the image of an object to a focus in order to be viewed through the eye-piece. The object-glass. Though acromatic lenses had been applied to telescopes by Dollond near the middle of the eighteenth century, yet in 1821, according to Biot, opticians regarded the construction of a good achromatic microscope as an impossibility. In 1827 Professor Amici of Modena exhibited in England and Paris a horizontal microscope whose object-glass, of large aperture, was composed of three superimposed lenses. A microscope constructed by Chevalier, on Amici's plan, was awarded a silver medal. The theory of the subject was about this time investigated by Sir John Herschel, Professor Airy, and others, and, acting on their theoretical views, Mr. Joseph Jackson Lister succeeded in effecting one of the greatest improvements in the manufacture of achromatic object-glasses by uniting a plano-conv
might walk after sunset ten miles in a straight line by the light of the public lamps. 700 years after this, London and Paris were unpaved and had no public lamps. The capital of France was not paved in the twelfth century, for Rigord, the physion, it is said, the name of the city, which was then called Lutetia, on account of its dirtiness, was changed to that of Paris. In 1641, the streets in many quartiers of Paris were not yet paved. Dijon, at that time reckoned one of the most bea middle of the fifth century, was first published in 1786. It is in the British Museum, at London. The Ephraim or Royal Paris manuscript, marked C, of the fifth century, and the Cambridge manuscript, marked D, of the sixth century, are next in val destination. This was a piece of the kingly magnificence of le Grand Monarque, and was far ahead of what was enjoyed by Paris. The pumping-machine is said to have cost $1,600,000. Machine de Marly. The cut is a longitudinal section showing
r drawn off into the Thames, and the solid sold for agricultural purposes. Sewers (London and Paris patterns). In Fig. 4844, a illustrates the shape and dimensions of a sewer employed in some instance illustrated is that of the steamer Frigorific, 900 tons, intended for the La Plata and Paris trade. The barge shown alongside is intended for the river Seine transportation between Havre and Paris. Both ship and barge are fitted with the Tellier refrigerating apparatus, in which a low degree of temperature is imparted to an air-blast which passes around large plates cooled by the exp service in London or Paris. The priority of lighting streets is contested between London and Paris. In London it appears that in 1417, Sir Henry Barton, Mayor, ordered Lanterns with lights to be lanterns, when going abroad after nightfall. In 1667 the lighting and police arrangements of Paris were improved; the project was that of the Abbe Laudati, and was legalized in 1662. In 1671 the
ameter, and was completed in 1787. It had two telescopes of 36 inches focal length. It was used for a triangulation to connect the observatories of Greenwich and Paris, and also in the English, Irish, and Indian trigonometric surveys. The telescope circle and stand are capable of motion round a vertical axis. The altazimuth misappears in the form of scraps. The trade in sardine-boxes produced at Nantes, in 1869, nearly 400 tons of scrap; Birmingham produces about 20 tons per week, and Paris 50 to 60 tons per month. The tin-scrap of New York is estimated at 30 tons per day. A small quantity of these scraps has always been used in various ways, such asn cutting out the immense supply of farmyards and their appropriate animals, soldiers of every nation, and household implements of every kind, which, dispatched to Paris from Olbernau, in fragile wooden boxes, are sold for two or three francs. Beasts, covered with velvety coats, colored according to the animal, are made at Rodach,
eceiving its motion from that of the object whose speed is to be measured describes a curve upon the paper, varying according to the varying velocity of the object. See also speed-gage; speed-measurer; speed-re-corder; speed-indicator. 3. Apparatus for measuring rate of motion of cannon-balls. See electro-ballistic apparatus; ballistic pendulum; chronograph. Ve-loc′i-pede. A species of carriage impelled by the rider. Blanchard and Magurier's velocipede was described in the Journal de Paris, 1799. Known as the accelerator, 1819. At the beginning of the century it was called a dandy horse ; this was operated by the thrust of the feet on the ground. That of the Baron de Drais, invented at Mannheim, 1817, had but two wheels, and was moved by the thrust of the feet on the ground. Subsequently those driven by a crank movement connected with the wheels and operated by the hands through the medium of cranks or wheels were introduced. Steam-monocycle. The bicycle, pa