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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 4 0 Browse Search
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h and a small cell containing sulphuric acid. This cell was broken with a pair of pliers, and the acid ignited the composition by contact therewith. Next (about 1834) we find the Lucifers, which were coated with a mixture of sulphide of antimony and chlorate of potash made into a paste with gumwater, and ignited by drawing between the surfaces a folded piece of sand-paper. The Congreve next appeared, in which phosphorus was substituted for sulphide of antimony. In March, 1842, Reuben Partridge patented a machine for making splints. 1845, Schrotter of Vienna discovered amorphous or allotropic phosphorus, which rendered the manufacture less unhealthy, and the matches less dangerous. The process of manufacture is, according to Tomlinson, as follows: — Thick pine planks are cut into blocks by a circular saw, and these are divided into splints by a series of lancets in a reciprocating frame, which score the face of the block to a certain depth. A scytheshaped knife, cutt
A number of reed instruments are called organs, being on the accordeon or melodeon principle, free reeds played by keys in one or more banks. Such are known as cabinet, parlor, and small choir organs. Pipe organs are also made of a cabinet size. The hand or barrel organ is also a pipe organ in which the keys are moved by pins (staples) on a barrel moved by a crank, the arrangement of the pins being on a similar principle to that of a musical-box. Lascell's organ-blowing apparatus (Dr. Partridge's Church, Brooklyn, N. Y.). The electric organ is one in which the valves admitting air to the pipes are opened and closed by electro-magnetic action. The general arrangement is as follows:— Each key has a separate insulated wire, the circuit through which is closed by depressing the key, causing a communicator to dip into a minute cup of mercury, the current thus established exciting a small electro-magnet that attracts a pallet or keeper, by which the valve is opened and remain