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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 52 0 Browse Search
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three strangers a morsel of bread to stay their stomachs, while his wife prepared hot cakes made out of fine meal, kneaded, and no doubt cooked in the ashes, as they had not then seen the Egyptian plan of cooking in ovens. This was served up with butter, — probably bonnyclabber or curds, — milk, and veal. The Hebrew bread was a flat cake, baked on the hearth or on a metallic plate. It was broken, not cut, and may have had indentations to form lines of easy fracture. Thus may have arisen Paul's remark, — We, being many, are one bread (1 Cor. x. 17). In the time of Pliny we find that, though bread was made from a variety of grains, yet that wheat was held in the highest estimation: the wheat of Italy ranking first for weight and whiteness, while that of Sicily, one of the granaries of Rome, stood third, Boeotian wheat being preferred to it. He states that the weight of all commissary bread exceeded that of the flour from which it was made by one third, and this is still held <
hem. The action is explained under card (which see). In 1748, Lewis Paul patented two different machines for carding. In one of them the Arkwright, it was not till after several attempts by different men, Paul, Hargreaves, and Arkwright, worked in such a manner that it is diffiat share each had in the matter. It was not till twenty years after Paul's invention that the cylinder carding-machine came into extensive usds of clepsydras; one with a balance. A clock was presented by Pope Paul I. to Pepin, King of France, A. D. 760; was possibly a clepsydra. indications are as follows: — A. D. 760, a clock presented by Pope Paul I. to Pepin, of France: probably a clepsydra. A. D. 810, the cws:— Fly-shuttle, John Kay, of Bury, 1738. Carding-machine, Lewis Paul, 1738. Drop-box, Robert Kay, 1760. Spinning by rollers, LewLewis Paul or John Wyatt, 1738. Spinning-jenny, Hargreaves, 1767. Water-frame, Arkwright, 1769. Power-loom, Rev. D. E. Cartwright, 1785.
ondon, in 1288, and that of Canterbury Cathedral, A. D. 1292, were similarly constructed. To go a step farther back, we may suppose that the clocks presented by Pope Paul 1. to Pepin of France, A. D. 760, and to Charlemagne by the Caliph Haroun Al Raschid, A. D. 810, were of similar construction; or perhaps were clepsydras. untain. Among the most remarkable fountains are the Fon- tana di Trevi at Rome, constructed for Pope Clement XII. in 1735; the Fontana Paolina, erected for Pope Paul V. in 1612; the Fontana della Acqua Felice, or Fountain of Moses. The fountains of Versailles, made for Louis XIV., and the Jet d'eau of St. Cloud, are much adm. b. Securing a ship in emergency by wrapping ropes around it, to prevent starting of the planks. They used helps, undergirding the ship. — Luke's account of Paul's voyage. 2. Bracing the cords of a drum by pulling them together. Free′board. (Shipwrighting.) So much of the vessel's side as is included between the <
bric from the Isles of Elishah. Josephus identifies the descendants of Elishah, the eldest son of Javan, with the Aeolians. So Greece furnished the Tyrian dye. Lydia of Thyatira, a seller of purple, was converted A. D. 53, under the preaching of Paul of Tarsus. This was in or near the ancient Aeolia, so that the local profession was yet preserved. Mast-car′ling. (Shipbuilding.) Large timbers at the side of the mast-rooms that are left deep enough to receive the cross-chocks. Mas′te complete in every part, yet so small, thin, and slender that all of them were included at once in a cup turned out of a peppercorn of the common size. Johannes Shad of Mitelbranch carried this wonderful work with him to Rome, and showed it to Pope Paul V., who saw and counted them all by the help of a pair of spectacles. They were so little as to be almost invisible to the eye. Johannes Ferrarius, a Jesuit, had in his possession cannons of wood, with their carriages, wheels, and all other<
to hang up the rudder in the smoke of the chimney when out of service. The rudders of the ancients were paddles which protruded through ports in the stern, or rested in rowlocks on the taffrail of the ship or boat. In the tempestuous voyage of Paul, when they had discovered a certain creek with a shore, into which they were minded, if it were possible, to thrust the ship, they took up the anchors, committed themselves unto the sea, loosened the fastenings of the rudders, hoisted the mainsail to the wind, and made towards shore. Paul wrote well on every subject he undertook, and the account of his voyage gives us a better idea of the mode of navigation 2,000 years ago than any other work which has come down to our time. The rudders, where more than one was used, were on each quarter, protruding through holes in the counter. The foremost part of the frame of a rudder is the rudder-stock. Its slope is termed the rake of the rudder; this depends on the rake of the stern-post. Its
achinery was by Wyatt of Lichfield, 1730. Lewis Paul's patent for spinning by rollers1738 Lewis Lewis Paul's second patent1758 Arkwright's first patented spinning-frame1761 Hargreaves' spinning-jenny chine. Arkwright was but two years old when Lewis Paul patented an improved spinning-machine. Dyr, in his poem of The fleece (1757), celebrates Paul's machine, as follows:— But patient art, Th This was before Arkwright. The glory of Lewis Paul's inventions in spinning is obscured by the to any degree of fineness that may be desired. Paul acknowledges the receipt of £ 20,000 from his pon the track of those previously patented by Lewis Paul, but their greater success indicates better to Arkwright, and the latter appropriated. Lewis Paul was also there to oppose Arkwright. Arkwrcept the spinning-wheel. It was invented by Lewis Paul, and patented by him in 1738. His machine hd the basis of the machine first invented by Lewis Paul in 1738, and brought into successful operati[1 more...]