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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 66 0 Browse Search
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 2 0 Browse Search
The writings of John Greenleaf Whittier, Volume 6. (ed. John Greenleaf Whittier) 2 0 Browse Search
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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Perkins, Jacob 1766-1849 (search)
Perkins, Jacob 1766-1849 Inventor; born in Newburyport, Mass., July 9, 1766. As early as his fifteenth year he carried on the business of a goldsmith in Newburyport, and early invented a method for plating shoe-buckles. He made dies for coining money when the United States Mint was under consideration. He was then twenty-one, and when he was twenty-four he invented a machine for making nails at one operation, and steel plates for bank-notes, which, it was supposed, could not be counterfeited. After living in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, he went to England in the year 1815, where he perfected steam-engines, and for many years carried on a large manufactory in London. He originated the process used by bank-note engravers for transferring an engraving from one steel plate to another, and perfected many other inventions, for which he received the gold medal of the Society of Arts in London. He died in London, England, July 30, 1849.
educe it to the condition of pure, soft iron. This is the process used in softening plates and dies under the modern system of bank-note engraving invented by Jacob Perkins (cited below). Analogous processes are had in the case of cast-iron, producing the various grades of hardness, from the chilled cast-iron to the soft malleaan equal heat of the articles inside; the box is then removed and buried in hot ashes, which protract the process of cooling for several days. See tempering. Perkins's process of transfer-engraving is as follows: — A soft steel plate is first engraved in finished style, either by hand or mechanically, or the two combined, are, and insinuate itself into the finest lines of the hardened steel against which it is pressed. The use of steel in preference to copper may be credited to Mr. Perkins and the engraver Warren. Warren annealed his plates at a high temperature in earthen boxes packed with pounded oyster-shells. The practice in the Bank of
e valves of the feed-pump of a locomotive are technically called clacks, though they are frequently ball-valves. a, valve; b, hinge; d, seat. Clam′ming-ma-chine′. A machine in which an engraved and hardened die (intaglio) is made to rotate in contact with a soft steel mill, in order to deliver a cameo impression thereupon. The mill is used to indent copper rollers for calico printing. It is the same system as that used in the American bank-note engraving, and was invented by Jacob Perkins. Clamming-machine. The mill is cylindrical, and is journaled in bearings attached to the beadstock B of the machine. The cylindrical die is journaled in the sliding-piece C. The mill, having been adjusted in its bearings, is forcibly screwed up against the die, to which motion is imparted by the gears D E operated by the winch F. Clamp. 1. A pile of bricks built up together in order to be burned. 2. (Metallurgy.) A pile of ore heaped for roasting, or of coal for coking
easure, by an oyled paper. This I bought of him, giveing him a crowne for it; and so, well satisfied, he went away. — Ibid., Oct. 5, 1664. Aquatint engraving invented by St. Non of France, 1662. Engraving in steel introduced into England by Perkins of Philadelphia, 1819. The earliest application of the wood-engraver's art in Europe was in cutting blocks for playingcards. The French writers ascribe it to the time of Charles V., but the Germans show cards of the date 1300. The Italians glio impression is delivered upon a plate or cylinder for bank-note printing, or calico-printing, by the rotation under contact with the said object of a hardened steel roller (mill) bearing the design in cameo. This system was invented by Jacob Perkins, and was first adopted in bank-note engraving. (See transferring-machine.) The process for obtaining in the design in cameo on the mill, by rotation in contact with an intaglio die, is effected in a transfer press. See also Clamming-machine
pipes f carry back the cooler water. By another system, each story has its own ascending and descending pipes, with separate connection to the boiler. An air-faucet at top is necessary to allow escape of air from the pipes when starting up. Perkins's heater. The boiler must be sufficently strong to bear the hydrostatic pressure of the column of water. A boiler, 3 by 2 and 2 feet deep, with a pipe 28 feet high proceeding from it, will sustain a pressure of 66,816 pounds. The size ofhich will produce the desired effect. For 3-inch pipes multiply the said number by 1.33; for 2-inch pipes multiply by 2. The given diameters of the pipes are outside measurement. Small pipes have a relatively larger area of heating surface. Perkins's high-pressure hot water heating-apparatus (A B, Fig. 2594) consisted of a continuous wrought-iron pipe, which formed a coil a in the furnace, and passed from story to story of the building, being amplified into coils at special points, as in t
its surface being protected from oxidation by a chalky paste. This hardened roller is called the die. The die is then placed in a transferring-press, where, by rotatory pressure, it is made to impress its design upon the surface of a softened steel roller placed in apposition to the said die. The soft roller has the design in cameo, is hardened, and forms a mill, which is capable of delivering an intaglio impression upon a plate or roller, as above stated. The process was invented by Jacob Perkins, and adapted to engraving cylinders for calico-printing by Locket of Manchester, England. See under the following heads: — Amalgamator.Oil-cake mill. Arrastra.Oil-mill. Bait-mill.Ore-mill. Bark-mill.Paint-mill. Barker's mill.Pearl-barley machine. Barley-mill.Pearling-mill. Battery.Peat-machine. Bean-mill.Percussion-grinder. Bone-mill.Pestle. Boring-mill.Plaster-mill. Camp-mill.Polishing-machine. Cane-mill.Polishing-mill. Caoutchouc-mill.Porcelain-mill. Cement-mill.Porp
ah Wilkinson of Cumberland, R. I., cut tacks from plates of sheet-metal, and afterward made nails and spikes in a similar manner, forming the heads in a vise. Ezekiel Reed of Bridgewater, Mass., in 1786, invented a machine for cutting nails from the plate, and in 1798 obtained a patent for cutting and heading them at one operation. Benjamin Cochran had also constructed a machine of this kind; and Josiah Person of New York, in 1794, patented a machine for cutting nails from the sheet. Perkins's machine, invented 1790 and patented in 1795, is said to have been capable of making 200,000 nails per day. These, and Odiorne's, which embraced some improvements upon them, attracted great attention in England, where they soon came into extensive use. At the close of the century, 23 patents had been granted for improvements in nail-machines. Nail-making machine. In cutting nails from the plate, it is an object of primary importance to avoid waste of metal. This is effected e
erged or nearly so. At the end of its stroke it is lifted out of the water, returned along an upper track, dropped down to its work, and then again propelled. A number of patents have been granted for modifications of this general idea. 8. Perkins's sculling-wheel, patented in England in 1829, has paddles set obliquely on radial arms which are attached to axes sloping toward the stern, so as to make with the axis of the vessel angles of 45° and an angle of 90° with each other. On the exted size and proportions. Plaster-spreader. Fig. 3807 has a shield hinged to a block which has a concave upper surface. The leather is clamped between the shield and bed, and is exposed at the opening in the former. Plaster-spread. Perkins's patent, January 15, 1830, has a pair of rollers, between which the leather is run, flattening down the plaster upon it. Blisters were made by Hippocrates, 400 B. C. Cantharides are commonly found in Spain, and their use is ascribed to Areta
h′, Chamber's rail, on elastic webs. i′, Robinson's double rail. j′, Pierce's rail. k′, Peckham's rail. l′, Perkins's rail. m′, Shephard's steel-top rail. n′, Day and Mercer's rail. o′, Dwight's rail. p′, Zahn's rail. qrevious to finishing; cools to a point below cherry-red; rolls without removing scale; repeats operation. No. 52,647, Perkins, 13, 2, 1866. Cleans and brightens mechanically; then heats in an oven to develop color. No. 53,476, Perkins, 27, 3,Perkins, 27, 3, 1866. Sheets packed with intervening iron turnings; heated, rolled, annealed. No. 53,253, Allen and Hinsdale, 20, 3, 1866. A fagot of iron has top and bottom steel-plates; heated, rolled into a bar; bar rolled into sheets; oxide removed by acid bath; washed; a pack of ten heated to redness and rolled. No. 56,759, Jones, Spaulding, and Perkins, 31, 7, 1866. The wrought-iron melted in a crucible with nitrate of lead, muriate of antimony, bone-dust, and graphite: stir; remove
29, 1871. 119,690BleesOct. 10, 1871. 122,401PerkinsJan. 2, 1872. 122,673SmythJan. 9, 1872. 123,ting Machines on Table. No.Name.Date. 27,926PerkinsApr. 17, 1860. 41,393PilbeamJan. 26, 1864. 4avannah, 350 tons, crossed the Atlantic)1819 PerkinsAmericanSteam-gun1824 StephensonEnglishLocomos used to aid circulation were invented by Jacob Perkins, and used by him and several of his pupilshe plates to increase the heating surface. Perkins' sectional boiler was intended for generating wooden piston or sabot to expel the ball. Perkins exhibited a steam-gun in England before the Dion was drawn to some changes in oils used by Perkins in his curious steam-engine that employed verhardly be said to have existed previous to Jacob Perkins, of Massachusetts, the inventor of the tray him in England about 1837, the firm name of Perkins, Fairbairn, and Heath soon becoming famous inince the invention of the transfer-process by Perkins is an adaptation of the process by G. W. Casi[3 more...]
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