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treating fire on the one hand by itself, and the elements opposed to it—earth, air and water—on the other, as a single nature.Cf. 3.14. This can be seen from a study of his writings.e.g. Empedocles, Fr. 62 (Diels).Such, then, as I say, is his account of the nature and number of the first principles.Leucippus,Of Miletus; fl. circa 440 (?) B.C. See Burnet, E.G.P. 171 ff. however, and his disciple DemocritusOf Abdera; fl. circa 420 B.C. E.G.P loc. cit. hold that the elements are the Full and the Void—calling the one "what is" and the other "what is not." Of these they identify the full or solid with "what is," and the void or rare with "what is not" (hence they hold that what is not is no less real than what is,For the probable connection between the Atomists and the Eleatics see E.G.P. 173, 175, and cf. De Gen. et Corr. 324b 35-325a 32. because Void is as real as Body); and they say that th<
But they are in luck, because they can make the most of your supineness, which prefers to take no advantage even of your due rights.The greatest humiliation, however, that we have suffered is that all the other Greeks and barbarians dread your enmity, but these upstartsLiterally nouveaux riches, another word condemned by Libanius as un-Demosthenic. alone can make you despise yourselves, sometimes by persuasion, sometimes by force, as if Abdera or Maronea,Two cities of Thrace. The former was the Greek Gotham. and not Athens, were the scene of their political activities.
While these events were taking place Thrasybulus, the Athenian general, sailing to Thasos with fifteen ships defeated in battle the troops who came out from the city and slew about two hundred of them; then, having bottled them up in a siege of the city, he forced them to receive back their exiles, that is the men who favoured the Athenians, to accept a garrison, and to be allies of the Athenians. After this, sailing to Abdera,The birthplace of the great Greek physical philosopher Democritus. he brought that city, which at that time was among the most powerful in Thrace, over to the side of the Athenians.Now the foregoing is what the Athenian generals had accomplished since they sailed from Athens. But Agis, the king of the Lacedaemonians, as it happened, was at the time in DeceleiaThe fortress in Attica which the Lacedaemonians, on the advice of Alcibiades (cp. chap. 9.2), had permanently occupied. with his army, and when
Thus, then, it went with the Ionian Phocaea. The Teians did the same things as the Phocaeans: when Harpagus had taken their walled city by building an earthwork, they all embarked aboard ship and sailed away for Thrace. There they founded a city, Abdera, which before this had been founded by Timesius of Clazomenae; yet he got no profit of it, but was driven out by the Thracians. This Timesius is now honored as a hero by the Teians of Abdera. Thus, then, it went with the Ionian Phocaea. The Teians did the same things as the Phocaeans: when Harpagus had taken their walled city by building an earthwork, they all embarked aboard ship and sailed away for Thrace. There they founded a city, Abdera, which before this had been founded by Timesius of Clazomenae; yet he got no profit of it, but was driven out by the Thracians. This Timesius is now honored as a hero by the Teians of Abdera.
In the next year after this,491. Darius first sent a message bidding the Thasians, who were falsely reported by their neighbors to be planning rebellion, to destroy their walls and bring their ships to Abdera. Since they had been besieged by Histiaeus of Miletus and had great revenues, the Thasians had used their wealth to build ships of war and surround themselves with stronger walls. Their revenue came from the mainland and from the mines. About eighty talents on average came in from the gold-mines of the “Dug Forest”,On the Thracian coast, opposite Thasos. and less from the mines of Thasos itself, yet so much that the Thasians, paying no tax on their crops, drew a yearly revenue from the mainland and the mines of two hundred talents on average, and three hundred when the revenue was greates
I myself have seen these mines; by far the most marvellous were those that were found by the Phoenicians who with Thasos colonized this island, which is now called after that Phoenician Thasos. These Phoenician mines are between the place called Aenyra and Coenyra in Thasos, opposite Samothrace; they are in a great hill that has been dug up in the searching. So much for that. The Thasians at the king's command destroyed their walls and brought all their ships to Abdera.
After he had crossed the dried-up bed of the river Lisus, he passed by the Greek cities of Maronea, Dicaea, and Abdera. He passed by these, and along certain well-known lakes near them: the Ismarid lake that lies between Maronea and Stryme, and near Dicaea the Bistonian lake, into which the rivers Travus and Compsantus discharge. Near Abdera Xerxes passed no well-known lake, but crossed the river Nestus where it flows into the sea. From these regions he passed by the cities of the mainland, one of which has near it a lake of about thirty stadia in circuit, full of fish and very salty; this was drained dry by watering the beasts of burden alone. This city is called Pistyrus.