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surpassing each in the way appropriate to each;This passage is closely imitated by Lyc. 1.70, and by Aristeides, Isoc. 12.217. and having proved our superiority in meeting all dangers, we were straightway awarded the meed of valor,By general acknowledgement. See Isoc. 4.99 and Isoc. 7.75, Isoc. 8.76. and we obtained, not long after, the sovereignty of the seaAthens obtained the supremacy as the head of the Confederacy of Delos 477 B.C. See Isoc. 7.17; Isoc. 12.67; Hdt. 9.106; Thuc. 1.95; Xen. Hell. 6.5.34. by the willing grant of the Hellenes at large and without protest from those who now seek to wrest it from our hands.
It was because we had these objections, and others besides, to oligarchies that we established the same polityA democratic government. Cf. Isoc. 12.54 ff. in the other states as in Athens itself—a polity which I see no need to extol at greater length, since I can tell the truth about it in a word: They continued to live under this regime for seventy years,A round number. So Lys. 2.55. Demosthenes reckons the period of supremacy more accurately at 73 years, 477-404. In Isoc. 12.56 Isocrates reckons it at 65 years—roughly from the Confederacy of Delos to the Athenian disaster in Sicily, which was really the beginning of the end of the Athenian supremacy. and, during this time, they experienced no tyrannies, they were free from the domination of the barbarians, they were untroubled by internal factions, and they were at peace with all the wor
and has, furthermore, many allies who, in case of any need, will readily come to her aid,He refers here, probably, to allies by special treaty as distinguished from the allies next mentioned, who were members of the Confederacy and under the leadership of Athens. The latter paid their quotas into the Athenian treasury for the support of the Confederate navy. and many more allies who are paying their contributionsIn the second Confederacy the word su/ntacis （contribution） was used instead of fo/ros （tribute） which became an odious term in the Confederacy of Delos. Cf. Isoc. 15.123. and obeying her commands. With these resources, one might argue that we have every reason to feel secure, as being far removed from danger, while our enemies may well be anxious and take thought for their own
for the former put into our minds the expectation both of regaining our possessions in the several states and of recovering the power which we formerly enjoyed,As head of the Confederacy of Delos, which developed into the Athenian Empire. During the period of supremacy, which lasted from the close of the Persian Wars to the end of the Peloponnesian War, Athens frequently disciplined recalcitrant confederate states by expelling their citizens and settling Athenians on their lands. Such settlements were called cleruchies. When Athens formed the new naval confederacy in 378 B.C. it was expressly stipulated by her allies and agreed to by Athens that such abuse of power should not be repeated. But the jingoistic orators advocated nothing less than the restoration of the former empire with all its powers and practices. while the latter hold forth no such hope, insisting rather that we must have peace and not crave great possessions contrary to justice,The state which seizes and holds fo
Nay, we shall see our city enjoying twice the revenuesAccording to Demosthenes （Dem. 10.37-38） Athens before the peace had an income of 130 talents; after the peace of 400 talents. which she now receives, and thronged with merchants and foreigners and resident aliens,Foreigners, whether merchants or not, had to pay nonresident fees, cenika\ te/lh; resident aliens paid the metoi/kion of 12 drachmas per man and 6 per woman. by whom she is now deserted.And, what is most important of all, we shall have all mankind as our allies—allies who will not have been forced, but rather persuaded, to join with us, who will not welcome our friendship because of our power when we are secure only to abandon us when we are in peril,The reference is to the allies who revolted from Athens both during the Confederacy of Delos and during the New Naval League. but who will be disposed towards us as those should be who are in very truth allies and fri
And this is the very thing which has happened to our city; for we think that, if we sail the sea with many triremes and compel the various states to pay contributionsIn the Confederacy of Delos the quotas paid to Athens to support the league were termed fo/roi, which, when Athens made it compulsory, came to have the invidious meaning “tribute moneys.” In the New Naval League, the term sunta/ceis, contributions, was substituted. Cf. Isoc. 15.123 and Isoc. 7.2. and send representativesTo the Common Council of the allies, to\ koino\n sune/drion tw=n summa/xiwn, which met in Athens. to Athens, we have accomplished something to the purpose. But in fact, we have been completely misled as to the truth; for of the hopes which we cherished not one has been fulfilled; on the contrary, we have reaped from them hatreds and wars and great expense. And this was to be expect
for in former times as the result of such meddlesomeness we were placed in the utmost peril,At the end of the Peloponnesian War, which was the end of the Confederacy of Delos and of the Empire of Athens. while as the result of keeping our city in the path of justice and of giving aid to the oppressed and of not coveting the possessions of others we were given the hegemony by the willing consent of the HellenesIn 478 B.C., when the Confederacy of Delos （see Isoc. 12.67 ff. and notes）was formed, path of justice and of giving aid to the oppressed and of not coveting the possessions of others we were given the hegemony by the willing consent of the HellenesIn 478 B.C., when the Confederacy of Delos （see Isoc. 12.67 ff. and notes）was formed, Thucydides states that the Ionian Greeks came to Athens and asked her to take the hegemony. See i. 95, 96. Cf. Isoc. 4.72.—considerations which now and for a long time past, without reason and with utter recklessness, we have treated with