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Flavius Josephus, Against Apion (ed. William Whiston, A.M.) 2 0 Browse Search
Homer, The Odyssey (ed. Samuel Butler, Based on public domain edition, revised by Timothy Power and Gregory Nagy.) 2 0 Browse Search
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Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XII, Chapter 54 (search)
Rhegians and the other Chalcidian colonists. Making Rhegium their base they first of all overran the islands of the LiparaeansThe group of small volcanic islands west of the toe of Italy; cp. Book 5.7. because they were allies of the Syracusans, and after this they sailed to Locri,Epizephyrian Locris on the east shore of the toe of Italy. where they captured five ships of the Locrians, and then laid siege to the stronghold of Mylae.On the north coast of Sicily west of Messene. When the neighbouring Sicilian Greeks came to the aid of the Mylaeans, a battle developed in which the Athenians were victorious, slaying more than a thousand men and taking prisoner not less than six hundred; and at once they captured and occupied the stronghold. While these events were taking place there arrived forty ships which the Athenian people had sent, deciding to push the war more vigorously; the commanders were Eurymedon and Sophocles. When all
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XII, Chapter 65 (search)
424 B.C.At the close of this year, in Athens the archon was Isarchus and in Rome the consuls elected were Titus Quinctius and Gaius Julius, and among the Eleians the Eighty-ninth Olympiad was celebrated, that in which SymmachusOf Messene; cp. chap. 49.1. won the "stadion" for the second time. This year the Athenians chose as general Nicias, the son of Niceratus, and assigning to him sixty triremes and three thousand hoplites, they ordered him to plunder the allies of the Lacedaemonians. He sailed to Melos as the first place, where he ravaged their territory and for a number of days laid siege to the city; for it was the only island of the Cyclades which was maintaining its alliance with the Lacedaemonians, being a Spartan colony. Nicias was unable to take the city, however, since the Melians defended themselves gallantly, and he then sailed to OropusOropus was always debatable territory between Attica and Boeotia. in Boeotia. L
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XIII, Chapter 61 (search)
, in order that it might not happen that the city should be taken by storm while its best troops were fighting a war abroad. They decided, therefore, that their best course was to abandon the city, and that they should embark half the populace on the triremes (for these would convey them until they had got beyond Himeraean territory) and with the other half keep guard until the triremes should return. Although the Himeraeans complained indignantly at this conclusion, since there was no other course they could take, the triremes were hastily loaded by night with a mixed throng of women and children and of other inhabitants also, who sailed on them as far as Messene; and Diocles, taking his own soldiers and leaving behind the bodies of those who had fallen in the fighting, set forth upon the journey home.To Syracuse. And many Himeraeans with children and wives set out with Diocles, since the triremes could not carry the whole populace.
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XIII, Chapter 63 (search)
4. he was overpowered by his political opponents and, upon being condemned to exile, he handed over the fleet in the PeloponnesusXen. Hell. 1.1.31 states that the new commanders took over the Syracusan ships and troops at Miletus. to the men who had been dispatched to succeed him. And since he had struck up a friendship with Pharnabazus, the satrap of the Persians, as a result of the campaign, he accepted from him a great sum of money with which, after he had arrived at Messene, he had five triremes built and hired a thousand soldiers. Then, after adding to this force also about a thousand of the Himeraeans who had been driven from their home, he endeavoured with the aid of his friends to make good his return to Syracuse; but when he failed in this design, he set out through the middle of the island and seizing Selinus he built a wall about a part of the city and called to him from all quarters the Selinuntians who were still alive.Hermocr
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XIII, Chapter 86 (search)
. He did not, however, neglect the siege works, but filling up the river which ran beside the city as far as the walls, he advanced all his siege-engines against them and launched daily assaults. The Syracusans, seeing that Acragas was under siege and fearing lest the besieged might suffer the same fate as befell the Selinuntians and Himeraeans,Cp. chaps. 57 and 62 respectively. had long been eager to send them their aid, and when at this juncture allied troops arrived from Italy and Messene they elected DaphnaeusA Syracusan, later executed by Dionysius (infra, chap. 96.3). general. Collecting their forces they added along the way soldiers from Camarina and Gela, and summoning additional troops from the peoples of the interior they made their way towards Acragas, while thirty of their ships sailed along beside them. The forces which they had numbered in all more than thirty thousand infantry and not less than five thousand cavalry.
Herodotus, The Histories (ed. A. D. Godley), Book 7, chapter 164 (search)
This Cadmus had previously inherited from his father the tyranny of Cos. Although the tyranny was well established, he nevertheless handed the government over to the whole body of Coans of his own free will. This he did under no constraint of danger, but out of a sense of justice, and he then went to Sicily, where he was given by the Samians the city of Zancle which he colonized and changed its name to Messene. This is how Cadmus had come, and it was he whom Gelon now sent because of his sense of justice. What I will now relate was not the least of the many just acts of Cadmus' life; he had in his possession great wealth entrusted to him by Gelon and might have kept it. He nevertheless would not do so, but when the Greeks had prevailed in the sea-fight and Xerxes had headed home, Cadmus returned to Sicily with all that money.
Homer, Odyssey, Book 21, line 1 (search)
at held the arrows, and many arrows were in it, fraught with groanings—gifts which a friend of Odysseus had given him when he met him once in Lacedaemon, even Iphitus, son of Eurytus, a man like unto the immortals.They two had met one another in Messene in the house of wise Ortilochus. Odysseus verily had come to collect a debt which the whole people owed him, for the men of Messene had lifted from Ithaca in their benched ships three hundred sheep and the shepherds with them.It was on an embassMessene had lifted from Ithaca in their benched ships three hundred sheep and the shepherds with them.It was on an embassy in quest of these that Odysseus had come a far journey, while he was but a youth; for his father and the other elders had sent him forth. And Iphitus, on his part, had come in search of twelve brood mares, which he had lost, with sturdy mules at the teat; but to him thereafter did they bring death and doom,when he came to the stout-hearted son of Zeus, the man Heracles, who well knew1 deeds of daring; for Heracles slew him, his guest though he was, in his own house, ruthlessly, and had regard
Isocrates, Panegyricus (ed. George Norlin), section 61 (search)
Many are the services which we have rendered to the state of the Lacedaemonians, but it has suited my purpose to speak of this one only; for, starting with the advantage afforded by our succor of them, the descendants of Heracles—the progenitors of those who now reign in Lacedaemon—returned to the Peloponnese, took possession of Argos, Lacedaemon, and Messene, settled Sparta, and were established as the founders of all the blessings which the Lacedaemonians now enj
Isocrates, Panegyricus (ed. George Norlin), section 108 (search)
which was not only fitted by her situation to command the sea, but also surpassed all the islands in her general resources,Herodotus characterizes Euboea as a “large and prosperous” island, Hdt. 5.31. Cf. Thuc. 8.96. and Euboea lent itself more readily to our control than did our own country besides, while we knew that both among the Hellenes and among the barbarians those are regarded most highly who have driven their neighbors from their homesThis cynical remark points to the Spartan conquest of Messene. and have so secured for themselves a life of affluence and ease, nevertheless, none of these considerations tempted us to wrong the people of the isla
Isocrates, Archidamus (ed. George Norlin), section 11 (search)
And yet our alliesEspecially the Corinthians. See Introduction. have been only too zealous in advising you that you must give up Messene and make peace. Because of this they merit your indignation far more than those who revoltedThe Arcadians had joined the Thebans in invading Sparta. The Argives, Eleans, and Achaeans had also forsaken Sparta and gone over partly or wholly to the Thebans. from you at the beginning. For the latter, when they had forsaken your friendship, destroyed their own cities, plunging them into civil strife and massacres and vicious forms of government.Such disturbances and changes of government took place about this time in Arcadia, Argos, Sicyon, Elis, and Phlius. See Xen. Hell. 7.1-4. By vicious forms of government Archidamus probably refers to the democracies which in various places had been set up instead of the earlier oligarchies. These men, on the other hand, come here to inflict injury upon us;
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