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Urbs antiqua, said with reference to Virg.'s own age. For the parenthetical construction Tyrii tenuere coloni, comp. v. 530 below, Est locus, Hesperiam Graii cognomine dicunt. Tyrii coloni, settlers from Tyre, as Dardaniis colonis, 7. 422, are settlers from Troy.
The words from necdum to honores are parenthetical. These causae irarum are distinguished from the vetus bellum, in other words, from the irae themselves, the bitterness displayed in or produced by the war. Virg. had already, v. 24, suggested one cause in her love for Argos; but though this supplies a parallel to her present feeling, it scarcely accounts for its existence; so he goes back to show that her old quarrel with Troy had other grounds. Dolores is the pang, put for the affront. It is only in the sense of the affront that it can properly be joined with exciderant animo, understood of being forgotten. So dolens, v. 9. Or if dolores is taken in its ordinary sense, exciderant animo will shift its meaning, had passed from her soul.
Genus invisum, the hated stock, referring to the birth of Dardanus, who was the son of Jupiter by Electra, daughter of Atlas. The carrying off of Ganymede, who belonged to a later generation of the royal house of Troy, was a further provocation.
He opens the cave, the winds rush out, and there is a dreadful tempest. Aeneas, seeing nothing but death before him, wishes he had died with honour at Troy, like so many of his friends.
Oronten: Med. and Gud. here, and in 6. 334 (in the latter passage Rom. also), have Orontem. But the analogy of other words of the sort formed from the Greek, as written in the best MSS. of Virg., is in favour of Oronten; which is supported too by Charisius (see on v. 220), and defended by Wagn. (Q. V. 3); who however does not appear altogether consistent in adopting im as the accus. of names in is, though the best MSS. support him. Fidus is a natural epithet of an ally who had followed the fortunes of Troy, not only during the siege, but in exile.
We may either take hinc— hinc as a mere repetition, or suppose that there are two clauses: hinc fore Romanos, hinc fore ductores a sanguine Teucri. Volventibus annis is Hom.'s periplome/nwn e)niautw=n. See on 8. 47 redeuntibus annis. Revocato, revived, after the national extinction of Troy. Comp. G. 4. 282, Nec genus unde novae stirpis revocetur habebit
The meaning of fatis contraria fata rependens is clearly, compensating or repaying destiny (of the destruction of Troy) with destiny (of reaching Italy). Rependere et compensare leve damnum delibatae honestatis maiore alia honestate, Gell. 1. 3. Contraria expresses the opposition between destiny and destiny as in 7. 293, fatis contraria nostris Fata Phrygum. Strictly then the epithet would agree with fatis, as the latter of the two correlatives, but by a poetical variety it is joined with fata, the former.
Honos, reward, as in 5. 249, 308. Reponis, restore us in Italy to the empire we have lost at Troy, though Weidner's interpretation of the prefix, referring it to the performance of a promise, is not impossible. Reponere is connected with in sceptra, which virtually means into the possession of the sceptre. Is this to restore a king to his throne?
Assaracus is the ancestor through whom Aeneas was related to the royal house of Troy. Comp. Il. 20. 230. The descendants of Aeneas shall triumph over those of Achilles (Phthiam), Agamemnon (Mycenas), and Diomede (Argos). Comp. 6. 838, Eruet ille Argos Agamemnoniasque Mycenas, Ipsumque Aeaciden, genus armipotentis Achilli.
Caesar, Augustus (Julius Caesar by adoption); not, as Serv. thinks, Julius, who could hardly be said to be laden with the spoils of the East, and who was not the primary object of a Roman's homage. We may observe that he is not distinctly spoken of here as Julius Caesar, which would have been ambiguous, but is called Caesar, the gentile name Julius being mentioned as connecting him with Iulus. It may seem against this that his apotheosis is spoken of v. 289; but we may be meant to understand the deification as taking place during his life, as we know it to have done, E. 1. 44 note, Hor. 2 Ep. . 15. With the whole passage comp. 6. 791 foll. Pulchra Troianus origine, from the high line of Troy; as though it had been pulchra Troianorum origine. This connects the line with those which precede. It is conceivable however, as has been suggested to me, that pulchra may refer to Augustus' personal beauty, an allusion to which would be appropriate in a speech to Venus.