one can foresee, from calculation and on principle, but only a fixed disposition of
Courage will enable one to face sudden peril.
（5） Those who face danger in ignorance also appear courageous; and they
come very near to those whose bravery rests on a sanguine temperament, though inferior to
them inasmuch as they lack self-confidence, which the sanguine possess. Hence the sanguine
stand firm for a time; whereas those who have been deceived as to the danger, if they
learn or suspect the true state of affairs, take to flight, as the Argives did when they
encountered the Lacedaemonians and thought they were Sicyonians.This occurred in the battle at the Long Walls of Corinth, 392 B.C.
Lacedaemonian cavalry had dismounted and armed themselves with the shields of the routed
Sicyonians, marked *s （Xen. Hell. 4.4.10）.
We have now described the characteristics both of the courageous and of those who are
thought to be cou