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and again, we know that while the Carthaginians and the Lacedaemonians, who are the best governed peoples of the world,Socrates and his followers idealized, in contrast to the slackness of Athens, the rigorous rule of such states as Sparta and Crete. See, for example, Plat. Crito 52e. Aristotle couples in his praise, as Isocrates here, the Spartans and the Carthaginians: Aristot. Pol. 1272b 24 ff. are ruled by oligarchies at home, yet, when they take the field, they are ruled by kings. One might also point out that the stateAthens. which more than any other abhors absolute rule meets with disaster when it sends out many generals,As in the disasters at Syracuse and Aegospotami. and with success when it wages war under a single leader.
Again, there is the case of DionysiusDionysius, the Elder, tyrant of Syracuse, 406-367 B.C.（for I desire you to be convinced by many instances that the course of action to which I am urging you is an easy one）. He was a person of small account among the Syracusans in birth,See Dio. Sic. 13.96. in reputation, and in all other respects;Yet Isocrates once wrote to him a most respectful letter （ Isoc. Letter 1）. yet, being inspired by a mad and unreasoning passion for monarchy, and having the hardi letter （ Isoc. Letter 1）. yet, being inspired by a mad and unreasoning passion for monarchy, and having the hardihood to do anything which advanced him to this goal, he made himself master of Syracuse, conquered all the states in Sicily which were of Hellenic origin, and surrounded himself with a power on both land and seaA navy of three hundred and ten ships, Dio. Sic. 14.42, and an army of a hundred thousand men more or less, Dio. Sic. 2.5. greater than any man before his time had
For I declare that we must send our parents and our wives and children and the mass of the people away from Sparta, some to Sicily, some to Cyrene, others to the mainland of Asia,Greek emigration from the home country was commonly towards the far west （Sicily）, the east （coast of Asia Minor）, or the south （Cyrene）. Moreover, Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse and the “dynasts” in Asia were friendly to the Spartans （see § 63）, and Cyrene was a Spartan settlement （see Isoc. 5.5）. where the inhabitants will all gladly welcome them with gifts of ample lands and of the other means of livelihood as well, partly in gratitude for favors which they have received and partly in expectation of the return of favors
However, they were not satisfied with perpetrating these crimes, but about the same time were ravaging the Asiatic coast,Greek settlements in Asia Minor. See Isoc. 4.144. committing outrages against the islands,For example, Samos （Xen. Hell. 2.3.6）, by expelling the democratic faction and setting up “decarchis” there. subverting the free governments in Italy and Sicily, setting up despotisms in their stead,Sparta supported Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse in extending his power over Greek cities in Sicily and Italy. See Diodorus xiv. 10 and cf. Isoc. 4.126, which should be read in this connection. overrunning the Peloponnesus and filling it with seditions and wars. For, tell me, against which of the cities of Hellas did they fail to take the field? Which of them did they fail to
Now as for the sophists who have lately sprung up and have very recently embraced these pretensions,The sophist before mentioned. The teaching of the older sophists is discussed in Antidosis. even though they flourish at the moment, they will all, I am sure, come round to this position. But there remain to be considered those who lived before our time and did not scruple to write the so-called arts of oratory.Especially the first to write such treatises, Corax and Tisias of Syracuse. te/xnh, like ars in Latin, was the accepted term for a treatise on rhetoric. These must not be dismissed without rebuke, since they professed to teach how to conduct law-suits, picking out the most discredited of terms,Again and again Isocrates expresses his repugnance to this kind of oratory, and in general it was in bad odor. The precepts of Corax （Crow）, for example, were called “the bad eggs of the bad Corax.” which the enemies, not the champions, of this discipline might have been expected to empl